3,100 research outputs found

    Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis presenting with occipital neuralgia

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    Background: Although occipital neuralgia is usually caused by degenerative arthropathy, nearly 20 other aetiologies may lead to this condition.Methods: We present the first case report of hypertrophic pachymeningitis revealed by isolated occipital neuralgia.Results and conclusions: Idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis is a plausible cause of occipital neuralgia and may present without cranial-nerve palsy. There is no consensus on the treatment for idiopathic hypertrophic pachymeningitis, but the usual approach is to start corticotherapy and then to add immunosuppressants. When occipital neuralgia is not clinically isolated or when a first-line treatment fails, another disease diagnosis should be considered. However, the cost effectiveness of extended investigations needs to be considered.Keywords: neuralgia/pathology, meningitis, neck pain/aetiology, revie

    Exosomes released by EBV-infected nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells convey the viral Latent Membrane Protein 1 and the immunomodulatory protein galectin 9

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    BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC) are consistently associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Their malignant epithelial cells contain the viral genome and express several antigenic viral proteins. However, the mechanisms of immune escape in NPCs are still poorly understood. EBV-transformed B-cells have been reported to release exosomes carrying the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) which has T-cell inhibitory activity. Although this report suggested that NPC cells could also produce exosomes carrying immunosuppressive proteins, this hypothesis has remained so far untested. METHODS: Malignant epithelial cells derived from NPC xenografts – LMP1-positive (C15) or negative (C17) – were used to prepare conditioned culture medium. Various microparticles and vesicles released in the culture medium were collected and fractionated by differential centrifugation. Exosomes collected in the last centrifugation step were further purified by immunomagnetic capture on beads carrying antibody directed to HLA class II molecules. Purified exosomes were visualized by electron microscopy and analysed by western blotting. The T-cell inhibitory activities of recombinant LMP1 and galectin 9 were assessed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated by CD3/CD28 cross-linking. RESULTS: HLA-class II-positive exosomes purified from C15 and C17 cell supernatants were containing either LMP1 and galectin 9 (C15) or galectin 9 only (C17). Recombinant LMP1 induced a strong inhibition of T-cell proliferation (IC50 = 0.17 nM). In contrast recombinant galectin 9 had a weaker inhibitory effect (IC50 = 46 nM) with no synergy with LMP1. CONCLUSION: This study provides the proof of concept that NPC cells can release HLA class-II positive exosomes containing galectin 9 and/or LMP1. It confirms that the LMP1 molecule has intrinsic T-cell inhibitory activity. These findings will encourage investigations of tumor exosomes in the blood of NPC patients and assessment of their effects on various types of target cells

    CD44+ cancer stem-like cells in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

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    Charmonia production in 450 GeV/c proton-induced reactions

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    Absolute \jpsi\ and \psip\ production cross sections have been measured at the CERN SPS, with 450~GeV/cc protons incident on a set of C, Al, Cu and W targets. Complementing these values with the results obtained by experiment NA51, which used the same beam and detector with H and D targets, we establish a coherent picture of charmonia production in proton-induced reactions at SPS energies. In particular, we show that the scaling of the \jpsi\ cross section with the mass number of the target, A, is well described as Aα^\alpha with αψ=0.919±0.015\alpha^\psi=0.919\pm0.015. The ratio between the \jpsi\ and \psip\ yields, in our kinematical window, is found to be independent of A, with αψâ€Č−αψ=0.014±0.011\alpha^{\psi^\prime}-\alpha^{\psi}=0.014\pm0.0 11

    Measurement of the Z/gamma* + b-jet cross section in pp collisions at 7 TeV

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    The production of b jets in association with a Z/gamma* boson is studied using proton-proton collisions delivered by the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV and recorded by the CMS detector. The inclusive cross section for Z/gamma* + b-jet production is measured in a sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.2 inverse femtobarns. The Z/gamma* + b-jet cross section with Z/gamma* to ll (where ll = ee or mu mu) for events with the invariant mass 60 < M(ll) < 120 GeV, at least one b jet at the hadron level with pT > 25 GeV and abs(eta) < 2.1, and a separation between the leptons and the jets of Delta R > 0.5 is found to be 5.84 +/- 0.08 (stat.) +/- 0.72 (syst.) +(0.25)/-(0.55) (theory) pb. The kinematic properties of the events are also studied and found to be in agreement with the predictions made by the MadGraph event generator with the parton shower and the hadronisation performed by PYTHIA.Comment: Submitted to the Journal of High Energy Physic

    Measurement of the t t-bar production cross section in the dilepton channel in pp collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV