1,228 research outputs found

    Clinical and ethical challenges in undertaking LIMPRINT in vulnerable populations

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    Background and study objective: To estimate the prevalence of CO and wounds within two vulnerable populations a male, high security prison in the East Midlands (UK) and residential and nursing homes in the UK and Australia. Methods and results: Methods for screening for chronic oedema (CO) and wounds were adapted from the main LIMPRINT methodology. Prison population. In total, 195 inmates were recruited with 22(11%) having CO. While the majority were white Caucasian (156 / 83.4%) a further 20 (10.7%) were dark skinned with 11 (5.95%) from other minority populations. Co-morbidities included 123 (63%) smokers, 22 (11%) alcohol dependant, 60 (31%) with mental health problems and 35 (18%) a history of self- harm. Only three had a current wound with 30 (16%) having had a traumatic stab wound. Residential and nursing homes (UK and Australia): In the UK, the total population available for inclusion was 189 with only 137(73%) recruited. Seventy two of the 137 (52%) suffered from CO and a further 16 (23%) had a history of cellulitis. Results from the Australian residential care facilities have been published in full. In summary, of the 37 participants 20 (54%) experienced CO with 25 (68%) having co-morbidities and 11 (30%) having a concurrent wound. Conclusion: Obtaining an accurate picture of the prevalence and impact of CO in vulnerable populations is extremely challenging due issues of access and consent. Lack of reliable data for these populations will contribute to poor service provision

    Synaptic scaffold evolution generated components of vertebrate cognitive complexity

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    The origins and evolution of higher cognitive functions, including complex forms of learning, attention and executive functions, are unknown. A potential mechanism driving the evolution of vertebrate cognition early in the vertebrate lineage (550 million years ago) was genome duplication and subsequent diversification of postsynaptic genes. Here we report, to our knowledge, the first genetic analysis of a vertebrate gene family in cognitive functions measured using computerized touchscreens. Comparison of mice carrying mutations in each of the four Dlg paralogs showed that simple associative learning required Dlg4, whereas Dlg2 and Dlg3 diversified to have opposing functions in complex cognitive processes. Exploiting the translational utility of touchscreens in humans and mice, testing Dlg2 mutations in both species showed that Dlg2\u27s role in complex learning, cognitive flexibility and attention has been highly conserved over 100 million years. Dlg-family mutations underlie psychiatric disorders, suggesting that genome evolution expanded the complexity of vertebrate cognition at the cost of susceptibility to mental illness

    The NEWMEDS rodent touchscreen test battery for cognition relevant to schizophrenia.

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    RATIONALE: The NEWMEDS initiative (Novel Methods leading to New Medications in Depression and Schizophrenia, http://www.newmeds-europe.com ) is a large industrial-academic collaborative project aimed at developing new methods for drug discovery for schizophrenia. As part of this project, Work package 2 (WP02) has developed and validated a comprehensive battery of novel touchscreen tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: This article provides a review of the touchscreen battery of tasks for rats and mice for assessing cognitive domains relevant to schizophrenia and highlights validation data presented in several primary articles in this issue and elsewhere. METHODS: The battery consists of the five-choice serial reaction time task and a novel rodent continuous performance task for measuring attention, a three-stimulus visual reversal and the serial visual reversal task for measuring cognitive flexibility, novel non-matching to sample-based tasks for measuring spatial working memory and paired-associates learning for measuring long-term memory. RESULTS: The rodent (i.e. both rats and mice) touchscreen operant chamber and battery has high translational value across species due to its emphasis on construct as well as face validity. In addition, it offers cognitive profiling of models of diseases with cognitive symptoms (not limited to schizophrenia) through a battery approach, whereby multiple cognitive constructs can be measured using the same apparatus, enabling comparisons of performance across tasks. CONCLUSION: This battery of tests constitutes an extensive tool package for both model characterisation and pre-clinical drug discovery.This work was supported by the Innovative Medicine Initiative Joint Undertaking under grant agreement no. 115008 of which resources are composed of EFPIA in-kind contribution and financial contribution from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013). The authors thank Charlotte Oomen for valuable comments on the manuscript.This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00213-015-4007-

    Increased epithelial cell proliferation in the ileal pouch mucosa of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis

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    To eliminate the risk of colorectal cancer in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), reconstructive proctocolectomy is performed. Although most colonic mucosa is resected during the ileal pouch anal anastomosis, adenomas and carcinomas may develop in the pouch. This may be caused by altered cell kinetics due to intraluminal changes in the pouch. In 32 patients with FAP, biopsy specimens from the mucosa of the pouch and also of the afferent ileal loop were taken. Tissue sections were immunohistochemically processed with the monoclonal antibodies M30 and MIB-1 to assess apoptotic and proliferative indices, respectively. Cell proliferation was also assessed by a modified sign test. There were no significant differences in apoptotic rates between the mucosa of the pouch and the mucosa of the afferent ileal loop. However, cell proliferation was significantly higher in the mucosa of the pouch vs afferent ileal loop, both by using the quantitative (68.3% vs 61.6%, p‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.001) and semiquantitative methods (p‚ÄČ<‚ÄČ0.05). Our newly developed semiquantitative approach outperformed previously described methods. The higher cell proliferation in the pouch as compared to the afferent ileal loop may contribute to the increased risk for adenomas and carcinomas in the pouch of patients with FAP and emphasizes the need for regular endoscopic surveillance

    The dependence of dijet production on photon virtuality in ep collisions at HERA

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    The dependence of dijet production on the virtuality of the exchanged photon, Q^2, has been studied by measuring dijet cross sections in the range 0 < Q^2 < 2000 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 38.6 pb^-1. Dijet cross sections were measured for jets with transverse energy E_T^jet > 7.5 and 6.5 GeV and pseudorapidities in the photon-proton centre-of-mass frame in the range -3 < eta^jet <0. The variable xg^obs, a measure of the photon momentum entering the hard process, was used to enhance the sensitivity of the measurement to the photon structure. The Q^2 dependence of the ratio of low- to high-xg^obs events was measured. Next-to-leading-order QCD predictions were found to generally underestimate the low-xg^obs contribution relative to that at high xg^obs. Monte Carlo models based on leading-logarithmic parton-showers, using a partonic structure for the photon which falls smoothly with increasing Q^2, provide a qualitative description of the data.Comment: 35 pages, 6 eps figures, submitted to Eur.Phys.J.

    Search for a narrow charmed baryonic state decaying to D^*+/- p^-/+ in ep collisions at HERA

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    A resonance search has been made in the D^*+/- p^-/+ invariant-mass spectrum with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 126 pb^-1. The decay channels D^*+ -> D^0 pi^+_s -> (K^- pi^+) pi^+_s and D^*+ -> D^0 pi^+_s -> (K^- pi^+ pi^+ pi^-) pi^+_s (and the corresponding antiparticle decays) were used to identify D^*+/- mesons. No resonance structure was observed in the D^*+/- p^-/+ mass spectrum from more than 60000 reconstructed D^*+/- mesons. The results are not compatible with a report of the H1 Collaboration of a charmed pentaquark, Theta^0_c.Comment: 22 pages, 7 figures, 1 table; minor text revisions; 2 references adde

    Beauty photoproduction measured using decays into muons in dijet events in ep collisions at s\sqrt{s}=318 GeV

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    The photoproduction of beauty quarks in events with two jets and a muon has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 110 pb‚ąí1^{- 1}. The fraction of jets containing b quarks was extracted from the transverse momentum distribution of the muon relative to the closest jet. Differential cross sections for beauty production as a function of the transverse momentum and pseudorapidity of the muon, of the associated jet and of xő≥jetsx_{\gamma}^{jets}, the fraction of the photon's momentum participating in the hard process, are compared with MC models and QCD predictions made at next-to-leading order. The latter give a good description of the data.Comment: 32 pages, 6 tables, 7 figures Table 6 and Figure 7 revised September 200

    Angular and Current-Target Correlations in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA

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    Correlations between charged particles in deep inelastic ep scattering have been studied in the Breit frame with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 6.4 pb-1. Short-range correlations are analysed in terms of the angular separation between current-region particles within a cone centred around the virtual photon axis. Long-range correlations between the current and target regions have also been measured. The data support predictions for the scaling behaviour of the angular correlations at high Q2 and for anti-correlations between the current and target regions over a large range in Q2 and in the Bjorken scaling variable x. Analytic QCD calculations and Monte Carlo models correctly describe the trends of the data at high Q2, but show quantitative discrepancies. The data show differences between the correlations in deep inelastic scattering and e+e- annihilation.Comment: 26 pages including 10 figures (submitted to Eur. J. Phys. C

    Plastisol Foaming Process. Decomposition of the Foaming Agent, Polymer Behavior in the Corresponding Temperature Range and Resulting Foam Properties

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    The decomposition of azodicarbonamide, used as foaming agent in PVC - plasticizer (1/1) plastisols was studied by DSC. Nineteen different plasticizers, all belonging to the ester family, two being polymeric (polyadipates), were compared. The temperature of maximum decomposition rate (in anisothermal regime at 5 K min-1 scanning rate), ranges between 434 and 452 K. The heat of decomposition ranges between 8.7 and 12.5 J g -1. Some trends of variation of these parameters appear significant and are discussed in terms of solvent (matrix) and viscosity effects on the decomposition reactions. The shear modulus at 1 Hz frequency was determined at the temperature of maximum rate of foaming agent decomposition, and differs significantly from a sample to another. The foam density was determined at ambient temperature and the volume fraction of bubbles was used as criterion to judge the efficiency of the foaming process. The results reveal the existence of an optimal shear modulus of the order of 2 kPa that corresponds roughly to plasticizer molar masses of the order of 450 ¬Ī 50 g mol-1. Heavier plasticizers, especially polymeric ones are too difficult to deform. Lighter plasticizers such as diethyl phthalate (DEP) deform too easily and presumably facilitate bubble collapse

    Search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum in pp collisions at ‚ąö s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector