126 research outputs found

    Predictors of barefoot plantar pressure during walking in patients with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy and a history of ulceration

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    OBJECTIVE:Elevated dynamic plantar foot pressures significantly increase the risk of foot ulceration in diabetes mellitus. The aim was to determine which factors predict plantar pressures in a population of diabetic patients who are at high-risk of foot ulceration. METHODS:Patients with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy and a history of ulceration were eligible for inclusion in this cross sectional study. Demographic data, foot structure and function, and disease-related factors were recorded and used as potential predictor variables in the analyses. Barefoot peak pressures during walking were calculated for the heel, midfoot, forefoot, lesser toes, and hallux regions. Potential predictors were investigated using multivariate linear regression analyses. 167 participants with mean age of 63 years contributed 329 feet to the analyses. RESULTS:The regression models were able to predict between 6% (heel) and 41% (midfoot) of the variation in peak plantar pressures. The largest contributing factor in the heel model was glycosylated haemoglobin concentration, in the midfoot Charcot deformity, in the forefoot prominent metatarsal heads, in the lesser toes hammer toe deformity and in the hallux previous ulceration. Variables with local effects (e.g. foot deformity) were stronger predictors of plantar pressure than global features (e.g. body mass, age, gender, or diabetes duration). CONCLUSION:The presence of local deformity was the largest contributing factor to barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in high-risk diabetic patients and should therefore be adequately managed to reduce plantar pressure and ulcer risk. However, a significant amount of variance is unexplained by the models, which advocates the quantitative measurement of plantar pressures in the clinical risk assessment of the patient

    Five year mortality and direct costs of care for people with diabetic foot complications are comparable to cancer.

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    BackgroundIn 2007, we reported a summary of data comparing diabetic foot complications to cancer. The purpose of this brief report was to refresh this with the best available data as they currently exist. Since that time, more reports have emerged both on cancer mortality and mortality associated with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU), Charcot arthropathy, and diabetes-associated lower extremity amputation.MethodsWe collected data reporting 5-year mortality from studies published following 2007 and calculated a pooled mean. We evaluated data from DFU, Charcot arthropathy and lower extremity amputation. We dichotomized high and low amputation as proximal and distal to the ankle, respectively. This was compared with cancer mortality as reported by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute.ResultsFive year mortality for Charcot, DFU, minor and major amputations were 29.0, 30.5, 46.2 and 56.6%, respectively. This is compared to 9.0% for breast cancer and 80.0% for lung cancer. 5 year pooled mortality for all reported cancer was 31.0%. Direct costs of care for diabetes in general was 237billionin2017.Thisiscomparedto237 billion in 2017. This is compared to 80 billion for cancer in 2015. As up to one-third of the direct costs of care for diabetes may be attributed to the lower extremity, these are also readily comparable.ConclusionDiabetic lower extremity complications remain enormously burdensome. Most notably, DFU and LEA appear to be more than just a marker of poor health. They are independent risk factors associated with premature death. While advances continue to improve outcomes of care for people with DFU and amputation, efforts should be directed at primary prevention as well as those for patients in diabetic foot ulcer remission to maximize ulcer-free, hospital-free and activity-rich days

    Geospatial mapping and data linkage uncovers variability in outcomes of foot disease according to multiple deprivation: a population cohort study of people with diabetes

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    Aims/hypothesis: Our aim was to investigate the geospatial distribution of diabetic foot ulceration (DFU), lower extremity amputation (LEA) and mortality rates in people with diabetes in small geographical areas with varying levels of multiple deprivation. Methods: We undertook a population cohort study to extract the health records of 112,231 people with diabetes from the Scottish Care Information – Diabetes Collaboration (SCI-Diabetes) database. We linked this to health records to identify death, LEA and DFU events. These events were geospatially mapped using multiple deprivation maps for the geographical area of National Health Service (NHS) Greater Glasgow and Clyde. Tests of spatial autocorrelation and association were conducted to evaluate geographical variation and patterning, and the association between prevalence-adjusted outcome rates and multiple deprivation by quintile. Results: Within our health board region, people with diabetes had crude prevalence-adjusted rates for DFU of 4.6% and for LEA of 1.3%, and an incidence rate of mortality preceded by either a DFU or LEA of 10.5 per 10,000 per year. Spatial autocorrelation identified statistically significant hot spot (high prevalence) and cold spot (low prevalence) clusters for all outcomes. Small-area maps effectively displayed near neighbour clustering across the health board geography. Disproportionately high numbers of hot spots within the most deprived quintile for DFU (p < 0.001), LEA (p < 0.001) and mortality (p < 0.001) rates were found. Conversely, a disproportionately higher number of cold spots was found within the least deprived quintile for LEA (p < 0.001). Conclusions/interpretation: In people with diabetes, DFU, LEA and mortality rates are associated with multiple deprivation and form geographical neighbourhood clusters

    An explorative study on the validity of various definitions of a 2·2°C temperature threshold as warning signal for impending diabetic foot ulceration

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    Home monitoring of skin temperature is effective to prevent diabetic foot ulceration. We explored the validity of various definitions for the >2·2°C left-to-right threshold used as a warning signal for impending ulceration. Twenty patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy monitored their skin temperature with an infrared thermometer at the plantar hallux, metatarsal heads, midfoot and heel four times a day for 6 consecutive days. Environmental temperature and walking activity were monitored and associated with foot temperature. The average temperature difference between feet was 0·65°C. At single locations, a left-to-right temperature difference of >2·2°C was found 245 times (8·5% of measurements). Confirmation of these above-threshold readings on the following day was found seven times (0·3%). Corrected for individual left-to-right mean foot temperature differences, this reduced to four (0·2%). No ulcers developed in the week after monitoring. Left-to-right foot temperature differences were not significantly correlated with walking activity, environmental temperature or time of day. The >2·2°C left-to-right foot temperature threshold for impending ulceration is not valid as single measurement, but validity improves to acceptable levels when an above-threshold temperature difference is confirmed the following day and further improves with individual correction. The threshold is independent of time of day, environmental temperature and walking activity

    Standards for the development and methodology of the 2019 International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot guidelines

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    Diabetic foot disease is a source of major patient suffering and societal costs. Investing in evidence-based international guidelines on diabetic foot disease is likely among the most cost-effective forms of health care expenditure, provided the guidelines are outcome focused, evidence based, and properly implemented. The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) has published and updated international guidelines since 1999. The 2019 updates are based on formulating relevant clinical questions and outcomes, rigorous systematic reviews of the literature, and recommendations that are specific, and unambiguous along with their transparent rationale, all using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. We herein describe the development of the 2019 IWGDF guidelines on the prevention and management of diabetic foot disease, which consists of six chapters, each prepared by a separate working group of international experts. These documents provide guidelines related to diabetic foot disease on prevention; offloading; peripheral artery disease; infection; wound healing interventions; and classification of diabetic foot ulcers. Based on these six chapters, the IWGDF Editorial Board also produced a set of practical guidelines. Each guideline underwent extensive review by the members of the IWGDF Editorial Board as well as independent international experts in each field. We believe that adoption and implementation of the 2019 IWGDF guidelines by health care providers, public health agencies, and policymakers will result in improved prevention and management of diabetic foot disease and a subsequent worldwide reduction in the patient and societal burden this disease causes

    Efficacy of at home monitoring of foot temperature for risk reduction of diabetes-related foot ulcer: A meta-analysis

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    Aims: To perform an updated systematic review of randomised controlled trials examining the efficacy of at-home foot temperature monitoring in reducing the risk of a diabetes-related foot ulcer (DFU). Methods: Systematic review performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Risk-of-bias was assessed using version 2 of the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Meta-analyses were performed using random effect models. Leave-one-out sensitivity analyses and a sub-analysis excluding trials considered at high risk-of-bias assessed the consistency of the findings. The certainty of the evidence was assessed with GRADE. Results: Five randomised controlled trials involving 772 participants meeting the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) risk category 2 or 3 were included. All trials reported instructing participants to measure skin temperature at-home at six or more sites on each foot using a hand-held infra-red thermometer at least daily and reduce ambulatory activity in response to hotspots (temperature differences >2.2°C on two consecutive days between similar locations in both feet). One, one, and three trials were considered at low, moderate and high risk-of-bias, respectively. Participants allocated to at-home foot temperature monitoring had a reduced risk of developing a DFU (relative risk 0.51, 95% CI 0.31–0.84) compared to controls. Sensitivity and sub-analyses suggested that the significance of this finding was consistent. The GRADE assessment suggested a low degree of certainty in the finding. Conclusions: At-home daily foot temperature monitoring and reduction of ambulatory activity in response to hotspots reduce the risk of a DFU in moderate or high risk people with a low level of certainty

    Orthopedische schoenen tegen voetulcera bij diabetes

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    In people with diabetes mellitus, foot ulcers are a major problem because they increase the risk of a foot infection and amputation and reduce quality of life. After a foot ulcer has healed, the risk of recurrence is high. Orthopaedic shoes and orthotics are often prescribed to high risk patients and aim to reduce the mechanical pressure on the plantar surface of the foot. Orthopaedic footwear that is modified to reduce pressure is not much more effective in preventing foot ulcer recurrence than orthopaedic footwear that did not undergo such modification, unless the shoes are worn as recommended. In that case, the risk of ulcer recurrence is reduced by 46%. In patients with a history of ulceration, compliance in wearing orthopaedic shoes at home is low, while these patients walk more inside the house than outside the house. Foot pressure measurements should be part of the prescription and evaluation of orthopaedic footwear for patients at high risk for foot ulceratio

    The Role of Pressure Offloading on Diabetic Foot Ulcer Healing and Prevention of Recurrence

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    An increased plantar pressure is a causative factor in the development of plantar foot ulcers in people with diabetes mellitus, and ulcers are a precursor of lower extremity amputation. In this article, the evidence is reviewed that relieving areas of increased plantar pressure (ie, offloading) can heal plantar foot ulcers and prevent their recurrence. Noninfected, nonischemic neuropathic plantar forefoot ulcers should heal in 6 to 8 weeks with adequate offloading. Recent meta-analyses and systematic reviews show that nonremovable knee-high devices are most effective. This is probably because they eliminate the problem of nonadherence with the use of a removable device. Studies show a large discrepancy between evidence-based recommendations on offloading and what is used in clinical practice. Many clinics continue to use methods that are less effective or have not been proven to be effective, while ignoring evidence-based methods. Strategies are proposed to address this issue, notably the adoption and implementation of recent international guidelines by professional societies and a stronger focus of clinicians on expedited healing. For the prevention of plantar foot ulcer recurrence in high-risk patients, 2 recent trials have shown that the incidence of recurrence can be significantly reduced with custom-made footwear that has a demonstrated pressure-relieving effect through guidance by plantar pressure measurements, under the condition that the footwear is worn. This review helps to inform clinicians about effective offloading treatment for healing plantar foot ulcers and preventing their recurrenc
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