2,227 research outputs found

    A parametric level-set method for partially discrete tomography

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    This paper introduces a parametric level-set method for tomographic reconstruction of partially discrete images. Such images consist of a continuously varying background and an anomaly with a constant (known) grey-value. We represent the geometry of the anomaly using a level-set function, which we represent using radial basis functions. We pose the reconstruction problem as a bi-level optimization problem in terms of the background and coefficients for the level-set function. To constrain the background reconstruction we impose smoothness through Tikhonov regularization. The bi-level optimization problem is solved in an alternating fashion; in each iteration we first reconstruct the background and consequently update the level-set function. We test our method on numerical phantoms and show that we can successfully reconstruct the geometry of the anomaly, even from limited data. On these phantoms, our method outperforms Total Variation reconstruction, DART and P-DART.Comment: Paper submitted to 20th International Conference on Discrete Geometry for Computer Imager

    Dasatinib inhibits CXCR4 signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells and impairs migration towards CXCL12

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    Chemokines and their ligands play a critical role in enabling chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells access to protective microenvironmental niches within tissues, ultimately resulting in chemoresistance and relapse: disruption of these signaling pathways has become a novel therapeutic approach in CLL. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib inhibits migration of several cell lines from solid-organ tumours, but effects on CLL cells have not been reported. We studied the effect of clinically achievable concentrations of dasatinib on signaling induced by the chemokine CXCL12 through its' receptor CXCR4, which is highly expressed on CLL cells. Dasatinib pre-treatment inhibited Akt and ERK phosphorylation in CLL cells upon stimulation with CXCL12. Dasatinib also significantly diminished the rapid increase in actin polymerisation observed in CLL cells following CXCL12 stimulation. Moreover, the drug significantly inhibited chemotaxis in a transwell assay, and reduced the percentage of cells able to migrate beneath a CXCL12-expressing murine stromal cell line. Dasatinib also abrogated the anti-apoptotic effect of prolonged CXCL12 stimulation on cultured CLL cells. These data suggest that dasatinib, akin to other small molecule kinase inhibitors targeting the B-cell receptor signaling pathway, may redistribute CLL cells from protective tissue niches to the peripheral blood, and support the investigation of dasatinib in combination strategies

    Hypoxia-regulated glucose transporter Glut-1 may influence chemosensitivity to some alkylating agents: Results of EORTC (First Translational Award) study of the relevance of tumour hypoxia to the outcome of chemotherapy in human tumour-derived xenografts

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    Tumour hypoxia confers poor prognosis in a wide range of solid tumours, due to an increased malignancy, increased likelihood of metastasis and treatment resistance. Poorly oxygenated tumours are resistant to both radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, although the link between radiation therapy and hypoxia is well established in a range of clinical studies, evidence of its influence on chemotherapy response is lacking. In this study, a panel of human tumour-derived xenografts that have been characterised previously for in vivo response to a large series of anti-cancer agents, and have been found to show chemosensitivities that correlate strongly with the parent tumour, were used to address this issue. Immunohistochemistry was carried out on formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded sections of xenograft samples to detect expression of the intrinsic hypoxia marker Glut-1 and adducts of the bioreductive hypoxia marker pimonidazole. Glut-1 scores correlated significantly with T/C values for CCNU sensitivity (r=0.439, P=0.036, n=23) and showed a borderline significant correlation with dacarbazine T/C (r=0.405, P=0.076, n=20). However, there was no correlation between both Glut-1 and pimonidazole scores and T/C obtained for the bioreductive drug mitomycin C. The use of human tumour-derived xenografts offers a potentially useful way of using archival material to determine the influence of hypoxia and other tumour-microenvironmental factors on chemosensitivity without the direct use of human subjects

    The Mechanisms of Codon Reassignments in Mitochondrial Genetic Codes

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    Many cases of non-standard genetic codes are known in mitochondrial genomes. We carry out analysis of phylogeny and codon usage of organisms for which the complete mitochondrial genome is available, and we determine the most likely mechanism for codon reassignment in each case. Reassignment events can be classified according to the gain-loss framework. The gain represents the appearance of a new tRNA for the reassigned codon or the change of an existing tRNA such that it gains the ability to pair with the codon. The loss represents the deletion of a tRNA or the change in a tRNA so that it no longer translates the codon. One possible mechanism is Codon Disappearance, where the codon disappears from the genome prior to the gain and loss events. In the alternative mechanisms the codon does not disappear. In the Unassigned Codon mechanism, the loss occurs first, whereas in the Ambiguous Intermediate mechanism, the gain occurs first. Codon usage analysis gives clear evidence of cases where the codon disappeared at the point of the reassignment and also cases where it did not disappear. Codon disappearance is the probable explanation for stop to sense reassignments and a small number of reassignments of sense codons. However, the majority of sense to sense reassignments cannot be explained by codon disappearance. In the latter cases, by analysis of the presence or absence of tRNAs in the genome and of the changes in tRNA sequences, it is sometimes possible to distinguish between the Unassigned Codon and Ambiguous Intermediate mechanisms. We emphasize that not all reassignments follow the same scenario and that it is necessary to consider the details of each case carefully.Comment: 53 pages (45 pages, including 4 figures + 8 pages of supplementary information). To appear in J.Mol.Evo

    Experiments on Multidimensional Solitons

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    This article presents an overview of experimental efforts in recent years related to multidimensional solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates. We discuss the techniques used to generate and observe multidimensional nonlinear waves in Bose-Einstein condensates with repulsive interactions. We further summarize observations of planar soliton fronts undergoing the snake instability, the formation of vortex rings, and the emergence of hybrid structures.Comment: review paper, to appear as Chapter 5b in "Emergent Nonlinear Phenomena in Bose-Einstein Condensates: Theory and Experiment," edited by P. G. Kevrekidis, D. J. Frantzeskakis, and R. Carretero-Gonzalez (Springer-Verlag

    Effects of partner proteins on BCA2 RING ligase activity

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    Abstract Background BCA2 is an E3 ligase linked with hormone responsive breast cancers. We have demonstrated previously that the RING E3 ligase BCA2 has autoubiquitination activity and is a very unstable protein. Previously, only Rab7, tetherin, ubiquitin and UBC9 were known to directly interact with BCA2. Methods Here, additional BCA2 binding proteins were found using yeast two-hybrid and bacterial-II-hybrid screening techniques with Human breast and HeLa cDNA libraries. Co-expression of these proteins was analyzed through IHC of TMAs. Investigation of the molecular interactions and effects were examined through a series of in vivo and in vitro assays. Results Ten unique BCA2 interacting proteins were identified, two of which were hHR23a and 14-3-3sigma. Both hHR23a and 14-3-3sigma are co-expressed with BCA2 in breast cancer cell lines and patient breast tumors (n = 105). hHR23a and BCA2 expression was significantly correlated (P = \u3c 0.0001 and P = 0.0113) in both nucleus and cytoplasm. BCA2 expression showed a statistically significant correlation with tumor grade. High cytoplasmic hHR23a trended towards negative nodal status. Binding to BCA2 by hHR23a and 14-3-3sigma was confirmed in vitro using tagged partner proteins and BCA2. hHR23a and 14-3-3sigma effect the autoubiquitination and auto-degradation activity of BCA2. Ubiquitination of hHR23a-bound BCA2 was found to be dramatically lower than that of free BCA2, suggesting that hHR23a promotes the stabilization of BCA2 by inactivating its autoubiquitination activity, without degradation of hHR23a. On the other hand, phosphorylated BCA2 protein is stabilized by interaction with 14-3-3sigma both with and without proteasome inhibitor MG-132 suggesting that BCA2 is regulated by multiple degradation pathways. Conclusions The interaction between BCA2 and hHR23a in breast cancer cells stabilizes BCA2. High expression of BCA2 is correlated with grade in breast cancer, suggesting regulation of this E3 ligase is important to cancer progression

    AZD8055 enhances in vivo efficacy of afatinib in chordomas

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    Chordomas are primary bone tumors that arise in the cranial base, mobile spine, and sacrococcygeal region, affecting patients of all ages. Currently, there are no approved agents for chordoma patients. Here, we evaluated the anti-tumor efficacy of small molecule inhibitors that target oncogenic pathways in chordoma, as single agents and in combination, to identify novel therapeutic approaches with the greatest translational potential. A panel of small molecule compounds was screened in vivo against patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of chordoma, and potentially synergistic combinations were further evaluated using chordoma cell lines and xenograft models. Among the tested agents, inhibitors of EGFR (BIBX 1382, erlotinib, and afatinib), c-MET (crizotinib), and mTOR (AZD8055) significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo but did not induce tumor regression. Co-inhibition of EGFR and c-MET using erlotinib and crizotinib synergistically reduced cell viability in chordoma cell lines but did not result in enhanced in vivo activity. Co-inhibition of EGFR and mTOR pathways using afatinib and AZD8055 synergistically reduced cell viability in chordoma cell lines. Importantly, this dual inhibition completely suppressed tumor growth in vivo, showing improved tumor control. Together, these data demonstrate that individual inhibitors of EGFR, c-MET, and mTOR pathways suppress chordoma growth both in vitro and in vivo. mTOR inhibition increased the efficacy of EGFR inhibition on chordoma growth in several preclinical models. The insights gained from our study potentially provide a novel combination therapeutic strategy for patients with chordoma. © 2021 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland

    Wnt5a induces ROR1 to complex with HS1 to enhance migration of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.

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    ROR1 (receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1) is a conserved, oncoembryonic surface antigen expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We found that ROR1 associates with hematopoietic-lineage-cell-specific protein 1 (HS1) in freshly isolated CLL cells or in CLL cells cultured with exogenous Wnt5a. Wnt5a also induced HS1 tyrosine phosphorylation, recruitment of ARHGEF1, activation of RhoA and enhanced chemokine-directed migration; such effects could be inhibited by cirmtuzumab, a humanized anti-ROR1 mAb. We generated truncated forms of ROR1 and found its extracellular cysteine-rich domain or kringle domain was necessary for Wnt5a-induced HS1 phosphorylation. Moreover, the cytoplamic, and more specifically the proline-rich domain (PRD), of ROR1 was required for it to associate with HS1 and allow for F-actin polymerization in response to Wnt5a. Accordingly, we introduced single amino acid substitutions of proline (P) to alanine (A) in the ROR1 PRD at positions 784, 808, 826, 841 or 850 in potential SH3-binding motifs. In contrast to wild-type ROR1, or other ROR1P→︀A mutants, ROR1P(841)A had impaired capacity to recruit HS1 and ARHGEF1 to ROR1 in response to Wnt5a. Moreover, Wnt5a could not induce cells expressing ROR1P(841)A to phosphorylate HS1 or activate ARHGEF1, and was unable to enhance CLL-cell motility. Collectively, these studies indicate HS1 plays an important role in ROR1-dependent Wnt5a-enhanced chemokine-directed leukemia-cell migration

    Cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and DNA-binding studies of the novel imidazoacridinone antineoplastic agent C1311

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    C1311 is a novel therapeutic agent with potent activity against experimental colorectal cancer that has been selected for entry into clinical trial. The compound has previously been shown to have DNA-binding properties and to inhibit the catalytic activity of topoisomerase II. In this study, cellular uptake and mechanisms by which C1311 interacts with DNA and exerts cytotoxic effects in intact colon carcinoma cells were investigated. The HT29 colon cancer cell line was chosen to follow cellular distribution of C1311 over a time course of 24 h at drug concentrations that just inhibited cell proliferation by 50% or 100%. Nuclear uptake of C1311 and co-localization with lysosomal or mitochondrial dyes was examined by fluorescence microscopy and effects on these cellular compartments were determined by measurement of acid phosphatase levels, rhodamine 123 release or DNA-binding behaviour. The strength and mode of DNA binding was established by thermal melting stabilization, direct titration and viscometric studies of host duplex length. The onset of apoptosis was followed using a TUNEL assay and DNA-fragmentation to determine a causal relationship of cell death. Growth inhibition of HT29 cells by C1311 was concomitant with rapid drug accumulation in nuclei and in this context we showed that the compound binds to duplex DNA by intercalation, with likely A/T sequence-preferential binding. Drug uptake was also seen in lysosomes, leading to lysosomal rupture and a marked increase of acid phosphatase activity 8 h after exposure to C1311 concentrations that effect total growth inhibition. Moreover, at these concentrations lysosomal swelling and breakdown preceded apoptosis, which was not evident up to 24 h after exposure to drug. Thus, the lysosomotropic effect of C1311 appears to be a novel feature of this anticancer agent. As it is unlikely that C1311-induced DNA damage alone would be sufficient for cytotoxic activity, lysosomal rupture may be a critical component for therapeutic efficacy. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaig

    Telomere uncapping by the G-quadruplex ligand RHPS4 inhibits clonogenic tumour cell growth in vitro and in vivo consistent with a cancer stem cell targeting mechanism

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    The pentacyclic acridinium methosulfate salt RHPS4 induces the 3′single-stranded guanine-rich telomeric overhang to fold into a G-quadruplex structure. Stabilisation of the latter is incompatible with an attachment of telomerase to the telomere and thus G-quadruplex ligands can effectively inhibit both the catalytic and capping functions of telomerase. In this study, we examined mechanisms underlying telomere uncapping by RHPS4 in uterus carcinoma cells (UXF1138L) with short telomeres and compared the susceptibility of bulk and clonogenic cancer cells to the G-quadruplex ligand. We show that treatment of UXF1138L cells with RHPS4 leads to the displacement of the telomerase catalytic subunit (hTERT) from the nucleus, induction of telomere-initiated DNA-damage signalling and chromosome fusions. We further report that RHPS4 is more potent against cancer cells that grow as colonies in soft agar than cells growing as monolayers. Human cord blood and HEK293T embryonic kidney cell colony forming units, however, were more resistant to RHPS4. RHPS4-treated UXF1138L xenografts had a decreased clonogenicity, showed loss of nuclear hTERT expression and an induction of mitotic abnormalities compared with controls. Although single-agent RHPS4 had limited in vivo efficacy, a combination of RHPS4 with the mitotic spindle poison Taxol caused tumour remissions and further enhancement of telomere dysfunction