216 research outputs found

    Liquid Rocket Engine Turbopump Rotating-shaft Seals

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    A monograph is organized and presents, for effective use in design, the significant experience and knowledge accumulated in development and operational programs to date. It reviews and assesses current practices, and from them establishes firm guidance for achieving greater consistency in design, increased reliability in the end product, and greater efficiency in the design effort. The monograph is divided into two major sections: state of the art and design criteria

    Small High-Speed Self-Acting Shaft Seals for Liquid Rocket Engines

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    Design analysis, fabrication, and experimental evaluation were performed on three self-acting facetype LOX seal designs and one circumferential-type helium deal design. The LOX seals featured Rayleigh step lift pad and spiral groove geometry for lift augmentation. Machined metal bellows and piston ring secondary seal designs were tested. The helium purge seal featured floating rings with Rayleigh step lift pads. The Rayleigh step pad piston ring and the spiral groove LOX seals were successfully tested for approximately 10 hours in liquid oxygen. The helium seal was successfully tested for 24 hours. The shrouded Rayleigh step hydrodynamic lift pad LOX seal is feasible for advanced, small, high-speed oxygen turbopumps

    Segmented, arch-bound carbon seal is pressure loaded

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    Conventional segmented carbon seal has a low leakage rate and minimum loading requirements for a high pressure, large diameter fluid impeller shaft with large axial and radial movements. Modifications in the segments allow part of the load to be carried in hoop stress

    High-Pressure Hot-Gas Self-Acting Floating Ring Shaft Seal for Liquid Rocket Turbopumps

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    Design analysis, detail design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation was performed on two self acting floating ring shaft seals for a rocket engine turbopump high pressure 24132500 n/sq m (3500 psig) hot gas 533 K 9500 F) high speed 3142 rad/sec (30000 rmp) turbine. The initial design used Rayleigh step hydrodynamic lift pads to assist in centering the seal ring with minimum rubbing contact. The final design used a convergent tapered bore to provide hydrostatic centering force. The Rayleigh step design was tested for 107 starts and 4.52 hours total. The leakage was satisfactory; however, the design was not acceptable due to excessive wear caused by inadequate centering force and failure of the sealing dam caused by erosion damage. The tapered bore design was tested for 370 starts and 15.93 hours total. Satisfactory performance for the required life of 7.5 hours per seal was successfully demonstrated

    Analysis of experimental shaft seal data for high-performance turbomachines, as for Space Shuttle main engines

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    High-pressure, high-temperature seal flow (leakage) data for nonrotating and rotating Raleigh-step and convergent-tapered-bore seals were characterized in terms of a normalized flow coefficient. The data for normalized Rayleigh-steip and nonrotating tapered-bore seals were in reasonable agreement with theory, but data for the rotating tapered-bore seals were not. The tapered-bore-seal operational clearances estimated from the flow data were significantly larger than calculated. Although clearances are influenced by wear from conical to cylindrical geometry and errors in clearance corrections, the problem was isolated to the shaft temperature - rotational speed clearance correction. The geometric changes support the use of some conical convergence in any seal. Under these conditions rotation reduced the normalized flow coefficiently by nearly 10 percent

    Emergency Department Chief Complaints Among Children With Cancer

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    Children with cancer have high emergency department (ED) utilization, but little is known about their chief complaints. A retrospective chart review of ED chief complaints for children with cancer (actively receiving therapy) at Riley Hospital for Children from January 2014 to December 2015 was performed. Proportions of visits and disposition for top 5 chief complaints were determined. Multivariate logistic regression analyzed factors associated with admission. There were 598 encounters by 231 children with cancer. About half (49%) had >1 complaint. The 5 most common primary chief complaints were: fever (60.2%), pain (6.5%), nausea/vomiting (5.0%), bleeding (3.9%), and abnormal laboratory values (3.3%). Admission rates varied, with the highest rates being for nausea/vomiting (66.7%). Risk factors for admission were: hospitalization in prior 4 weeks (odds ratio [OR], 2.67; confidence interval [CI], 1.77-4.02), chief complaint of fever (OR, 1.90; CI, 1.16-3.09). For each increase in number of chief complaints, odds increased by 1.45 (CI, 1.14-1.83). Black, non-Hispanic (OR, 0.44; CI, 0.22-0.88) as compared with white, non-Hispanic, younger age (OR, 0.53; CI, 0.29-0.99) or complaint of abnormal laboratory values (OR, 0.20; CI, 0.06-0.68) had lower odds of admission. Children with cancer present to the ED with multiple and varied complaints. Future interventions could aim to improve caregiver anticipatory guidance and ED visit preparedness

    BRST analysis of topologically massive gauge theory: novel observations

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    A dynamical non-Abelian 2-form gauge theory (with B \wedge F term) is endowed with the "scalar" and "vector" gauge symmetry transformations. In our present endeavor, we exploit the latter gauge symmetry transformations and perform the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) analysis of the four (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) topologically massive non-Abelian 2-form gauge theory. We demonstrate the existence of some novel features that have, hitherto, not been observed in the context of BRST approach to 4D (non-)Abelian 1-form as well as Abelian 2-form and 3-form gauge theories. We comment on the differences between the novel features that emerge in the BRST analysis of the "scalar" and "vector" gauge symmetries of the theory.Comment: LaTeX file, 14 pages, an appendix added, references expanded, version to appear in EPJ

    Cholesterol Sulfonation Enzyme, SULT2B1b, Modulates AR and Cell Growth Properties in Prostate Cancer

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    Cholesterol accumulates in prostate lesions and has been linked to prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and progression. However, how accumulated cholesterol contributes to PCa development and progression is not completely understood. Cholesterol sulfate (CS), the primary sulfonation product of cholesterol sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b), accumulates in human prostate adenocarcinoma and precancerous prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) lesions compared to normal regions of the same tissue sample. Given the enhanced accumulation of CS in these lesions, it was hypothesized that SULT2B1b-mediated production of CS provides a growth advantage to these cells. To address this, PCa cells with RNAi-mediated knockdown (KD) of SULT2B1b were used to assess the impact on cell growth and survival. SULT2B1b is expressed and functional in a variety of prostate cells and the data demonstrate that SULT2B1b KD, in LNCaP and other androgen-responsive (VCaP and C4-2) cells, results in decreased cell growth/viability and induces cell death. SULT2B1b KD also decreases androgen receptor (AR) activity and expression at mRNA and protein levels. While AR overexpression has no impact on SULT2B1b KD-mediated cell death, addition of exogenous androgen is able to partially rescue the growth inhibition induced by SULT2B1b KD in LNCaP cells. These results suggest that SULT2B1b positively regulates the AR either through alterations in ligand availability or by interaction with critical co-regulators that influence AR activity

    The Australasian Resuscitation In Sepsis Evaluation: FLUid or vasopressors In Emergency Department Sepsis, a multicentre observational study (ARISE FLUIDS observational study): Rationale, methods and analysis plan

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    There is uncertainty about the optimal i.v. fluid volume and timing of vasopressor commencement in the resuscitation of patients with sepsis and hypotension. We aim to study current resuscitation practices in EDs in Australia and New Zealand (the Australasian Resuscitation In Sepsis Evaluation: FLUid or vasopressors In Emergency Department Sepsis [ARISE FLUIDS] observational study).ARISE FLUIDS is a prospective, multicentre observational study in 71 hospitals in Australia and New Zealand. It will include adult patients presenting to the ED during a 30 day period with suspected sepsis and hypotension (systolic blood pressur

    A two-dimensional adsorption kinetic model for thermal hysteresis activity in antifreeze proteins

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    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), collectively abbreviated as AF(G)Ps, are synthesized by various organisms to enable their cells to survive in subzero environments. Although the AF(G)Ps are markedly diverse in structure, they all function by adsorbing to the surface of embryonic ice crystals to inhibit their growth. This adsorption results in a freezing temperature depression without an appreciable change in the melting temperature. The difference between the melting and freezing temperatures, termed thermal hysteresis (TH), is used to detect and quantify the antifreeze activity. Insights from crystallographic structures of a number of AFPs have led to a good understanding of the ice-protein interaction features. Computational studies have focused either on verifying a specific model of AFP-ice interaction or on understanding the protein-induced changes in the ice crystal morphology. In order to explain the origin of TH, we propose a novel two-dimensional adsorption kinetic model between AFPs and ice crystal surfaces. The validity of the model has been demonstrated by reproducing the TH curve on two different beta-helical AFPs upon increasing the protein concentration. In particular, this model is able to accommodate the change in the TH behavior observed experimentally when the size of the AFPs is increased systematically. Our results suggest that in addition to the specificity of the AFPs for the ice, the coverage of the AFPs on the ice surface is an equally necessary condition for their TH activity. (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics
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