172 research outputs found

    Utjecaj suradni─Źkih tehnika u─Źenja na samopo┼ítovanje predava─Źa: postignu─ça i nedostaci

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    Cooperative learning has been used effectively at the elementary and secondary levels, but it has only recently found its way to the college level. Therefore, in colleges, universities and work places throughout the world, tremendous efforts are underway to move from a lecture-based approach to more active, cooperative learning activities. This study investigates the effect of cooperative learning techniques on pre-service teachersÔÇÖ cooperative learning usage, cooperative learning attitude, self-esteem, class and discussion group (case) grades, class and discussion group attendance. The effect of cooperative learning was examined via instructional techniques. Classes were divided into experimental and control groups. The groups were taught with either traditional lecture-based format (control) or cooperative learning techniques (experimental) during a 16-week semester. Independent t-tests were run to compare some of the variables in pre-test scores and to test whether the groups were equivalent at the beginning of the study. Multivariate ANOVA was then utilized to test the group differences on the seven dependent variables. Surprisingly, the results revealed that cooperative learning techniques did have a positive effect on all of the seven dependent variables. Cooperative learning group and traditionally taught group had significantly differed from each other. It appears that cooperative learning has many academic, social and personal benefits for those who participate in it.Suradni─Źko u─Źenje je tehnika koja je uspje┼íno primjenjivana u osnovnim i srednjim ┼íkolama, ali je tek nedavno na┼íla svoje mjesto na sveu─Źili┼ínoj razini. Na fakultetima, sveu─Źili┼ítima i radnim mjestima diljem svijeta prelazi se s pristupa utemeljenog na predavanjima na aktivno, suradni─Źko u─Źenje. U ovom radu istra┼żivane su posljedice tehnika suradni─Źkog u─Źenja na predava─Źe i njihovu primjenu tih tehnika, stav prema njima, samopo┼ítovanje, uspjeh na razini razreda i grupe te prisutnost na nastavi u razredu i grupi. Rezultati suradni─Źkog u─Źenja istra┼żivani su instruktivnim tehnikama. Razredi su podijeljeni na eksperimentalne i kontrolne skupine, koje su pou─Źavane tradicionalnim predavanjima (kontrolna skupina) ili suradni─Źkim tehnikama u─Źenja (eksperimentalna skupina) tijekom 16-tjednog semestra. Varijable dobivene iz pre-test rezultata uspore─Ĺene su nezavisnim t-testom, kojim se utvrdila ekvivalentnost skupina u po─Źetku istra┼żivanja. Razlike me─Ĺu skupinama provjerene su multivarijatnom analizom varijance na sedam zavisnih varijabli. Iznena─Ĺuju─çe, rezultati su pokazali pozitivan utjecaj suradni─Źkih tehnika u─Źenja na svih sedam zavisnih varijabli. Skupine u kojima se provodilo suradni─Źko u─Źenje te skupine pou─Źavane na tradicionalan na─Źin zna─Źajno su se razlikovale. ─îini se da suradni─Źko u─Źenje ima brojne akademske, dru┼ítvene i osobne koristi za sudionike

    El papel de las experiencias objetivas y subjetivas, la exposici├│n directa y medi├ítica, el apoyo social y organizacional, y los efectos educativos y de g├ęnero en la predicci├│n de la reacci├│n de estr├ęs postraum├ítico de los ni├▒os un a├▒o despu├ęs del desastre

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    Eighty-three students and one teacher died when a powerful earthquake hit eastern Turkey at 3:27 in the morning. The boarding school at which they were residents was destroyed. The purpose of this study was to test the direct, indirect, objective, and subjective exposure effect on the development of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The impact of social and organizational support, as well as age and gender factors, were examined in relationship to the development of PTSD in this group. Participants included 270 disaster survivor elementary and secondary school students. One year after the disaster, each participant filled out a ChildrenÔÇÖs Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (CPTSD), trauma exposure, trauma experiencing, social support, and organizational support scale. Contributing factors were predicted with a stepwise regression analysis. A combination of direct, indirect, objective exposure scores, subjective exposure scores, gender, age, organizational and social support variables accounted for 17% of the PTSD scores. Direct exposure accounted for 6%, subjective exposure 5.4%, age 2%, food shortage 1%, and having a friend moving away after the disaster contributed 2.6% of the total variance. Subjective exposure (fear) and direct exposure appeared to be the most significant predictors. However, inconsistent with previous research studies, media exposure, gender, and physical exposure seemed to be especially poor contributors. Neither school nor home damage, the death of relatives or friends, or gas, water, and electric shortages contributed significantly to the results. However, fear experienced during the disaster, food shortages and the loss of a friend who moved away after the earthquake were all powerful predictors. Protective factors, which can strengthen or modify the individual's ability to cope, include healthy family functioning, support from peers and family members, organizing a social network, and the utilization of civil organizations. Thus, researcher and practitioner should pay attention to those predictive and protective factors.┬á┬áOchenta y tres estudiantes y un maestro fallecieron cuando un poderoso terremoto golpe├│ Turqu├şa del Este a las 3 : 27 de la madrugada. La escuela en la que se encontraban qued├│ destruida. El prop├│sito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la exposici├│n directa, indirecta, objetiva y subjetiva en el desarrollo del Trastorno de Estr├ęs Postraum├ítico (DEPT). El impacto del apoyo y la organizaci├│n social, as├ş como el efecto de la edad y el g├ęnero, fueron examinados en relaci├│n con el desarrollo de DEPT en este grupo. Los participantes fueron 270 estudiantes de escuela elemental y secundaria sobrevivientes al desastre. Un a├▒o despu├ęs, cada participante complet├│ el ├Źndice de Reacci├│n al Trastorno de Estr├ęs Postraum├ítico (ChildrenÔÇÖs Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index, CPTSD), exposici├│n al trauma, apoyo social y la escala de apoyo organizacional.┬á Los factores participantes se predijeron por medio de un an├ílisis de regresi├│n stepwise. Una combinaci├│n de puntajes de exposici├│n directa, indirecta, objetiva y subjetiva, g├ęnero, edad, apoyo social y organizacional explic├│ el 17 % de los puntajes de DEPT. La exposici├│n directa explic├│ un 6 % , la exposici├│n indirecta el 5,4 %, edad 3 % , falta de alimento el 1 %, y tener un amigo que se cambi├│ de lugar de vivienda despu├ęs del desastre contribuy├│ en la explicaci├│n de un 2,6 % de la varianza total.┬á La exposici├│n subjetiva y la exposici├│n directa parecen ser los principales predictores. Sin embargo, contrario a los hallazgos de estudios anteriores, la exposici├│n a los medios, el g├ęnero y la exposici├│n f├şsica aparecen como pobres predictores. Ni los da├▒os a la escuela o a la casa, la muerte de familiares o amigos o la falta de acceso a servicios como el gas, el agua o la energ├şa contribuyeron significativamente a los resultados

    Human dimension of the 1999 Marmara earthquakes in Turkey: Traumatic menthal health effects and consequences

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    By definition, disasters are natural phenomena that occur unexpectedly. Moreover, throughout the ages, human communities have experienced numerous disasters and the expectation is that there will be as many more in the coming years. On a daily basis, there are reports of earthquakes, hurricanes, and flood disaster news on TVs, radios, and other news media. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects of natural disasters on individuals as well as on community-based institutions. For these reasons, in particular, the purpose of this study is to explore, understand and analyze the notorious 1999 Marmara Earthquake on peopleÔÇÖs daily lives and social institutions. It is expected that peoples and countries within the earthquake zone can learn lessons from this Turkish Earthquake and draw some conclusions for the sake of their peopleÔÇÖs mental health as well as help protect their social institutions in the event of such hard times

    The first man-made trauma study with children: TerrÔÇÖs Chowchilla kidnapping study

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    The purpose of this mini review is to investigate one of the earliest man-made disaster trauma studies and compare and contrast with FreudÔÇÖs concept of trauma. Terr (1979) conducted a yearlong longitudinal qualitative anecdotal study with kidnapped children. Fundamentally, she pointed out views on which she disagreed with Sigmund Freud and Anna Freud and redefined the trauma concept. However, she still stuck to psychoanalytic terminology and referred to trauma as ÔÇťpsychic trauma,ÔÇŁ as Freud originally did

    Utjecaj suradni─Źkih tehnika u─Źenja na samopo┼ítovanje predava─Źa: postignu─ça i nedostaci

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    Cooperative learning has been used effectively at the elementary and secondary levels, but it has only recently found its way to the college level. Therefore, in colleges, universities and work places throughout the world, tremendous efforts are underway to move from a lecture-based approach to more active, cooperative learning activities. This study investigates the effect of cooperative learning techniques on pre-service teachersÔÇÖ cooperative learning usage, cooperative learning attitude, self-esteem, class and discussion group (case) grades, class and discussion group attendance. The effect of cooperative learning was examined via instructional techniques. Classes were divided into experimental and control groups. The groups were taught with either traditional lecture-based format (control) or cooperative learning techniques (experimental) during a 16-week semester. Independent t-tests were run to compare some of the variables in pre-test scores and to test whether the groups were equivalent at the beginning of the study. Multivariate ANOVA was then utilized to test the group differences on the seven dependent variables. Surprisingly, the results revealed that cooperative learning techniques did have a positive effect on all of the seven dependent variables. Cooperative learning group and traditionally taught group had significantly differed from each other. It appears that cooperative learning has many academic, social and personal benefits for those who participate in it.Suradni─Źko u─Źenje je tehnika koja je uspje┼íno primjenjivana u osnovnim i srednjim ┼íkolama, ali je tek nedavno na┼íla svoje mjesto na sveu─Źili┼ínoj razini. Na fakultetima, sveu─Źili┼ítima i radnim mjestima diljem svijeta prelazi se s pristupa utemeljenog na predavanjima na aktivno, suradni─Źko u─Źenje. U ovom radu istra┼żivane su posljedice tehnika suradni─Źkog u─Źenja na predava─Źe i njihovu primjenu tih tehnika, stav prema njima, samopo┼ítovanje, uspjeh na razini razreda i grupe te prisutnost na nastavi u razredu i grupi. Rezultati suradni─Źkog u─Źenja istra┼żivani su instruktivnim tehnikama. Razredi su podijeljeni na eksperimentalne i kontrolne skupine, koje su pou─Źavane tradicionalnim predavanjima (kontrolna skupina) ili suradni─Źkim tehnikama u─Źenja (eksperimentalna skupina) tijekom 16-tjednog semestra. Varijable dobivene iz pre-test rezultata uspore─Ĺene su nezavisnim t-testom, kojim se utvrdila ekvivalentnost skupina u po─Źetku istra┼żivanja. Razlike me─Ĺu skupinama provjerene su multivarijatnom analizom varijance na sedam zavisnih varijabli. Iznena─Ĺuju─çe, rezultati su pokazali pozitivan utjecaj suradni─Źkih tehnika u─Źenja na svih sedam zavisnih varijabli. Skupine u kojima se provodilo suradni─Źko u─Źenje te skupine pou─Źavane na tradicionalan na─Źin zna─Źajno su se razlikovale. ─îini se da suradni─Źko u─Źenje ima brojne akademske, dru┼ítvene i osobne koristi za sudionike

    Self-transcendence through Futuwwah and Dharma: Islam and Hinduism Perspectives

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    As a field of study, psychology has been on the path of sustained evolution. From psychoanalysis to Logotherapy, we have come a long way. The advent of spirituality, positive thinking, and the renewed interest in human potential have led to the emergence of various sub-fields in psychology. From denying the role of religion and spirituality in the therapy setting to designing interventions around these concepts, we have approached a contemporary phase in under┬şstanding human behavior and attitudes. A novel concept born out of the evolution of psychological concepts is the idea of self-transcendence. According to Maslow, there is a progressive movement towards uncovering peopleÔÇÖs potentials and being the best version of the self. Maslow proposed that a self-actualizing individual would eventually have to move up the hierarchy of needs and transcend the ego to relate to something beyond it. This process, known as self-transcendence, is often facilitated by selfless values and moral behaviors that allow the ego to transcend itself. The present paper looks into MaslowÔÇÖs theory of self-transcendence as recorded in two particular religious philosophies; Futuwwah (Islam) and Dharma (Hinduism). Both Futuwwah and Dharma, despite cultural and religious differences, foster similar values and moral acts in people. The current paper attempts to establish that the moral acts prescribed in Futuwwah and Dharma would eventually lead to an individual's self-transcendence. To do so, we will first attempt to define self-transcendence, theories of self-transcendence from multiple disciplines, and related concepts such as peak experiences and flow. Further, the paper will strive to explore traces of self-transcendence as expressed in religious philosophies, namely; Futuwwah and Dharma

    Faktorska analiza posttraumatskog stresnog poreme─çaja u Turskoj kod djece koja su do┼żivjela potrese

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    There are some countries that because of their situation on disaster prone areas, their children are more at risk than the rest of the world. For example, Turkey is located on the first degree earthquake fault lines and thus Turkish children are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to exposure to the earthquakes and threat of the anticipated earthquakes as well as aftershocks and other post disaster adversaries. Two hundred 4th and 5th grade students were given OSU Child-PTSD Inventory eleven months after the 1999 Marmara earthquakes in the city of Sakarya. The purpose of the present study was to identify items that characterize fundamental dimensions of PTSD as it is demonstrated by Turkish children. The investigation of underlying dimensions of PTSD was assessed with exploratory principal component factor analysis technique. Factor analysis revealed 4 factor solutions, these appear to be: (1) interpersonal and adjustment problems (2) re-experiencing, (3) foreshortened future and (4) anxiety and avoidance. The results indicate that it may be more useful to re-consider the DSM-IV symptoms into four underlying dimensions. Therefore, psychologists and school counselors should consider these various dimensions of PTSD when developing intervention and treatment programs for disaster victims and students in their schools. Cross cultural differences are also need to be taken into account when applying the western-based knowledge in other countries.U nekim zemljama, zbog polo┼żaja u podru─Źjima sklonim prirodnim nepogodama, djeca su izlo┼żena ve─çem riziku od ostatka svijeta. Na primjer, Turska se nalazi na spojevima tektonskih plo─Źa prvog stupnja, te su djeca u Turskoj podlo┼żnija razvoju posttraumatskog stresnog poreme─çaja (PTSP) zbog izlo┼żenosti potresima, prijetnji o─Źekivanih potresa, podrhtavanja i drugih neda─ça. OSU PTSP inventar za djecu primijenjen je na 200 u─Źenika 4. i 5. razreda 11 mjeseci nakon potresa u gradu Sakarya. Cilj istra┼żivanja bio je utvrditi ─Źestice koje odre─Ĺuju osnovne dimenzije PTSP-a manifestiran kod djece u Turskoj. Istra┼żivanje temeljnih dimenzija PTSP-a provedeno je pomo─çu faktorske analize temeljnih komponenti. Faktorska analiza dala je 4 faktorska rje┼íenja: (1) interpersonalni i problemi prilagodbe, (2) ponovno pro┼żivljavanje, (3) uskra─çena budu─çnost i (4) anksioznost i izbjegavanje. Rezultati upu─çuju na potrebu podjele simptoma prema DSM-IV u ─Źetiri osnovne dimenzije. Psiholozi i ┼íkolski savjetnici trebali bi dimenzije PTSP-a uzeti u obzir pri razvoju programa intervencije i lije─Źenja ┼żrtava prirodnih katastrofa i u─Źenika njihovih ┼íkola. Potrebno je tako─Ĺer uzeti u obzir kros-kulturalne razlike pri primjeni spoznaja do kojih se do┼ílo u zapadnim zemljama

    Enuresis: the hidden problem

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    Nocturnal enuresis is one of the most disabling conditions for both parents and children. Many children and their families are suffering this problem in their life. This can be a frustrating problem for children, entire family and the health care providers Gerson [1]. This can have a deep effect on children or adolescentÔÇÖsÔÇÖ behavior, emotional well-being and social life Hagglof [2]. It is one of the most common and chronic problems in childhoods and adolescents. Due to the nature of the problem, many parents and children are very reluctant to talk about the problem and seek help for that. Because of that, many children and adolescents suffer silently and cannot talk about their problems and seek solutions. Contrary to popular believe, this problem is not only specific to low social economic classes or developing countries. This can be observed in all over classes, nations, cultures and ethnic origins

    The History and Function of Sisterhood in Turkey: Bac─▒yan-─▒ Rum Organization in Medieval Era

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    Bac─▒yan-─▒ Rum┬á(Anatolian Sisters Organization) is known as the world's first women's organization in history, but very few pieces of literature exist about this medieval organi┬şzation. Thus, the aim was to reach up to all available historical documents about the topic and systematically analyze the nature and function of such an organization in the medieval era. Preliminary findings show that no written documents existed in English nor other languages except the Turkish language. It was also observed that this topic has emerged as an exciting area for many disciplines in recent times, leading to a sudden develop┬şment of recent write-ups on such a topic. Therefore, this paper aims to introduce and explore the historical antecedent and functions of┬áBac─▒yan-─▒ Rum┬áOrganization to readers and other professionals interested in history, ethics, women, and gender studies. Kinds of literature were reviewed across history, eco┬şnomics, politics, travelogues, art, sociology, and anthropology to provide an extensive and detailed understanding of such a remarkable phenomenal women organization that existed in the Islamic world of the Medieval Era in Anatolia, Turkey

    Classification of posttraumatic stress disorder and its evolution in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria

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    The purpose of this review is to provide an historical understanding of post- traumatic stress disorder. The concept of trauma is changing drastically in every publication or revision of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The underlying dimensions of trauma are also under constant consideration. Thus, the paper would provide some historical background of trauma nomenclature. This will enable the researcher to think of future diagnosis and differential diagnosis of traumatic syndromes. Posttraumatic stress disorder has been out there as back as human history. However, the recognition of traumatic symptoms on peopleÔÇÖs lives and mental health has been recently recognized. Even though non-governmental organizations and civic society drew attention of this issue for a long time, the legal and administrative bodies were reluctant to take action and recognize the effects of traumatic experiences on peopleÔÇÖs life
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