67 research outputs found

    Transformative Learning and Cultural Capabilities: Understanding Factors Associated with Student Preparedness to Work with Indigenous People in Health Settings

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    Indigenous Studies health curriculum has the potential to transform attitudes, behaviours and beliefs of non-Indigenous Australian students. This mixed methods research comprising five publications, and framed by Mezirow’s transformative learning theory, explored the pedagogical, personal and contextual factors of this complex learning environment. Findings support transformative learning experiences as a mechanism for changing attitudes and increasing preparedness to work in Indigenous health settings, with implications for future Indigenous Studies curriculum and educator development

    Meritocratic and fair? : The discourse of UK and Australia's widening participation policies

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    Funding information: This research has been conducted as part of a PhD, funded by the Aberdeen – Curtin Alliance PhD programme.Peer reviewedPostprin

    Understanding and working with different worldviews to co-design cultural security in clinical mental health settings to engage with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients

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    Background: Creating the conditions for meaningful relationships is essential to understanding Aboriginal worldviews and co-designing ways of working to achieve better health outcomes. Non-Aboriginal health professionals struggle to recognise the importance of social relationships to Aboriginal peoples and tensions emerge due to these different worldviews informed by different ontologies and epistemologies. This is more so in clinical settings where training and models of care are often inadequate for working with Aboriginal people. The impact of different understandings of relationships on the provision of health services to Aboriginal peoples remains under-researched. There is a critical need to reassess the way clinicians are supported by their organisations to engage with Aboriginal clients in competent and meaningfully ways. Methods: The paper provides key insights into an Aboriginal-led participatory action research project and the work of Aboriginal Elder co-researchers with non-Aboriginal mainstream service staff to better understand the importance of social relationships from an Aboriginal worldview. The paper critically engages literature on clinical service provision for Aboriginal peoples, along with an examination of the Australian Psychological Society Code of Conduct, to explore the tensions between professional training and the need to build relationships with Aboriginal clients. Findings: Through the Elders, non-Aboriginal service staff have expanded their understanding of Aboriginal culture, kinship and the importance of country to Aboriginal wellbeing. The Elders mentored staff to unpack the tensions between worldviews in clinical settings. The research resulted in a co-designed culturally safe framework for non-Aboriginal practitioners, which is building confidence, capacity and competence to work in partnership with Aboriginal peoples. The framework emphasis the need for culturally safe models of care. The Elders have supported non-Aboriginal staff to sit between the two worldviews to develop ways to work with Aboriginal clients and shift mainstream models of mental health care to improve the wellbeing of Aboriginal people

    Follow the policy : An actor network theory study of widening participation to medicine in two countries

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    CKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our thanks to all those who took part in this research and to colleagues at the Universities of Aberdeen and Curtin for their assistance with participant recruitment. Our thanks also to the Aberdeen-Curtin Alliance, which funded the PhD programme of work of which this study is part.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Three-dimensional kinematic differences between accurate and high velocity kicks in rugby union place kicking

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    Place kicking occurs many times during a rugby union game with more than half of all points scored coming from place kicking. Ball velocity is an important biomechanical indicator of kicking success but it also evident that the ball must be kicked accurately to pass between the posts. This study aimed to identify biomechanical differences in rugby place kicking kinematics when kicking towards a specific target and for maximum velocity. Ten male rugby union kickers performed place kicks in two conditions 1. for maximum velocity and 2. towards a pre-defined target. Lower extremity kinematics were obtained using an optoelectric motion capture system operating at 500 Hz. Differences in lower extremity kinematics between the two kicking conditions were examined using paired t-tests. Higher ball velocities were obtained when kicking for maximum velocity. Foot linear velocity, knee extension velocity and hip extension velocity were also found to be greater when kicking for maximum velocity. Ankle dorsiflexion and peak external rotation were found to be greater in the accuracy condition. The findings suggest that rugby kickers may have selected distinct kicking mechanics characterised by reduced joint angular velocities and a more externally rotated foot position in a deliberate attempt to improve precision, sacrificing ball velocity and thus the distance that the ball can be kicked. The specific findings from the current work have implications for coaches and applied practitioners which may facilitate improvements in kicking performance

    First steps in realising interdisciplinarity, creativity, empathy and global perspectives in STEM curriculum

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    AIMS What we accept as science today comes from a worldview that privileges Eurocentric ways of knowledge making over neo-indigenous and indigenous epistemologies (Ogawa, 1989; Snively and Corsiglia, 1999; Aikenhead, 2001). If we indeed desire to create a STEM curriculum that fosters creativity, empathy and values global experiences and perspectives, it is necessary for science education and science educators to recognise and examine assumptions that constitute the notion of ‘universal science’ (Gough, 2001). This presentation originates from reflections on discussions had by an interdisciplinary team consisting of science, indigenous education, and literacy and curriculum specialists in the course of designing a first year foundational Indigenous science unit. It aims to offer a theoretical construct grounded on the scholarship of Aikenhead and Ogawa (2007) to inform curriculum design for a cross-cultural foundational STEM unit. SOURCES OF EVIDENCE AND MAIN ARGUMENT As our lives become increasingly globalised, there has been growing acknowledgement of the capacity of non-Eurocentric/Western epistemologies that have traditionally been discredited or trivialised to offer sustainable perspectives on knowledge of the natural and social world (Kuokkanen, 2007; Mignolo, 2009). The growing impetus to embed Indigenous perspectives in Australian higher education curricula is a testament of this acknowledgement (Nakata, Nakata, Keech & Bolt, 2012; Universities Australia, 2011). However, in tandem with this position, there is also a need for a broader understanding of the impact of a hegemonic Eurocentric worldview of science on the science learning experience of students whose cultures and languages differ from the predominant Eurocentric culture and language of present day ‘universal science’ (Aikenhead and Ogawa, 2007). Such an understanding will not only facilitate better science education outcomes for all but also reflect the aims of both the call to internationalise higher education, and related imperatives to develop relevant and appropriate graduate capabilities, and thus employability, in times of global uncertainty and disruption (Hess & Ludwig, 2017; Oliver, 2015). The aim being “preparing 21st Century Graduates to live in and contribute responsibly to a globally interconnected society” (The Higher Education Academy, 2014). Science is a global endeavor and therefore contextualising it through internationalisation is a way forward. Internationalisation is defined as “the process of integrating an international, intercultural, or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of post-secondary education” (Knight, 2015). These dimensions are eminent for STEM students to develop a humanics approach in the enactment of their future STEM careers. To allow for the integration of an intercultural or global dimension in STEM education, it is necessary to trouble the philosophical foundation of “universal science” as it stands presently as a monocultural paradigm of knowledge making. Effort is needed to rediscover and/or transform our understanding of our place in the world, to recognise that all ways of being and knowing do not necessarily radiate outwards from, nor reflect, a central Eurocentric locus (Mignolo, 2009). This ‘troubling’ is particularly relevant if the intention is to facilitate student reflection upon the epistemic and ontological foundations of their discipline and, by extension, transformation of their own perspective as a practitioner within that discipline (Mezirow, 1990). In the first instance, it is necessary to understand how diverse paradigms of knowledge creation are acknowledged and reflected in the statements that underpin the Threshold Learning Outcomes for Science (Australian Teaching and Learning Council, 2011). CONCLUSIONS It is only by examining and troubling constructs and re-framing our beliefs as STEM educators can we realise our aspirations of a STEM curriculum that attends to the foundations of humanics; the need for empathy and respect for a multitude of perspectives - disciplinary, social and cultural differences - in the business of knowledge creation

    Study protocol for a non-inferiority trial of cytisine versus nicotine replacement therapy in people motivated to stop smoking

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Smokers need effective support to maximise the chances of successful quit attempts. Current smoking cessation medications, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, nortriptyline or varenicline, have been shown to be effective in clinical trials but are underused by smokers attempting to quit due to adverse effects, contraindications, low acceptability and/or high cost. Cytisine is a low-cost, plant-based alkaloid that has been sold as a smoking cessation aid in Eastern Europe for 50 years. A systematic review of trial evidence suggests that cytisine has a positive impact on both short- and long-term abstinence rates compared to placebo. However, the quality of the evidence is poor and insufficient for licensing purposes in many Western countries. A large, well-conducted placebo-controlled trial (n = 740) of cytisine for smoking cessation has recently been published and confirms the findings of earlier studies, with 12-month continuous abstinence rates of 8.4% in the cytisine group compared to 2.4% in the placebo group (Relative risk = 3.4, 95% confidence intervals 1.7-7.1). No research has yet been undertaken to determine the effectiveness of cytisine relative to that of NRT.</p> <p>Methods/design</p> <p>A single-blind, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial has been designed to determine whether cytisine is at least as effective as NRT in assisting smokers to remain abstinent for at least one month. Participants (n = 1,310) will be recruited through the national telephone-based Quitline service in New Zealand and randomised to receive a standard 25-day course of cytisine tablets (Tabex<sup>®</sup>) or usual care (eight weeks of NRT patch and/or gum or lozenge). Participants in both study arms will also receive a behavioural support programme comprising an average of three follow-up telephone calls delivered over an eight-week period by Quitline. The primary outcome is continuous abstinence from smoking at one month, defined as not smoking more than five cigarettes since quit date. Outcome data will also be collected at one week, two months and six months post-quit date.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>Cytisine appears to be effective compared with placebo, and given its (current) relative low cost may be an acceptable smoking cessation treatment for smokers, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries. Cytisine's 'natural' product status may also increase its acceptability and use among certain groups of smokers, such as indigenous people, smokers in countries where the use of natural medicines is widespread (e.g. China, India), and in those people who do not want to use NRT or anti-depressants to help them quit smoking. However it is important to ascertain the effectiveness of cytisine compared with that of existing cessation treatments.</p> <p>Trial registration</p> <p>Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (<a href="http://www.anzctr.org.au/ACTRN12610000590066.aspx">ACTRN12610000590066</a>)</p

    A Potential Role for Bat Tail Membranes in Flight Control

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    Wind tunnel tests conducted on a model based on the long-eared bat Plecotus auritus indicated that the positioning of the tail membrane (uropatagium) can significantly influence flight control. Adjusting tail position by increasing the angle of the legs ventrally relative to the body has a two-fold effect; increasing leg-induced wing camber (i.e., locally increased camber of the inner wing surface) and increasing the angle of attack of the tail membrane. We also used our model to examine the effects of flying with and without a tail membrane. For the bat model with a tail membrane increasing leg angle increased the lift, drag and pitching moment (nose-down) produced. However, removing the tail membrane significantly reduced the change in pitching moment with increasing leg angle, but it had no significant effect on the level of lift produced. The drag on the model also significantly increased with the removal of the tail membrane. The tail membrane, therefore, is potentially important for controlling the level of pitching moment produced by bats and an aid to flight control, specifically improving agility and manoeuvrability. Although the tail of bats is different from that of birds, in that it is only divided from the wings by the legs, it nonetheless, may, in addition to its prey capturing function, fulfil a similar role in aiding flight control

    Identification of Novel Proteins in Neospora caninum Using an Organelle Purification and Monoclonal Antibody Approach

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    Neospora caninum is an important veterinary pathogen that causes abortion in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs. Neospora has also generated substantial interest because it is an extremely close relative of the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii, yet does not appear to infect humans. While for Toxoplasma there are a wide array of molecular tools and reagents available for experimental investigation, relatively few reagents exist for Neospora. To investigate the unique biological features of this parasite and exploit the recent sequencing of its genome, we have used an organelle isolation and monoclonal antibody approach to identify novel organellar proteins and develop a wide array of probes for subcellular localization. We raised a panel of forty-six monoclonal antibodies that detect proteins from the rhoptries, micronemes, dense granules, inner membrane complex, apicoplast, mitochondrion and parasite surface. A subset of the proteins was identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry and reveal that we have identified and localized many of the key proteins involved in invasion and host interaction in Neospora. In addition, we identified novel secretory proteins not previously studied in any apicomplexan parasite. Thus, this organellar monoclonal antibody approach not only greatly enhances the tools available for Neospora cell biology, but also identifies novel components of the unique biological characteristics of this important veterinary pathogen

    The development and validation of a scoring tool to predict the operative duration of elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    Background: The ability to accurately predict operative duration has the potential to optimise theatre efficiency and utilisation, thus reducing costs and increasing staff and patient satisfaction. With laparoscopic cholecystectomy being one of the most commonly performed procedures worldwide, a tool to predict operative duration could be extremely beneficial to healthcare organisations. Methods: Data collected from the CholeS study on patients undergoing cholecystectomy in UK and Irish hospitals between 04/2014 and 05/2014 were used to study operative duration. A multivariable binary logistic regression model was produced in order to identify significant independent predictors of long (> 90 min) operations. The resulting model was converted to a risk score, which was subsequently validated on second cohort of patients using ROC curves. Results: After exclusions, data were available for 7227 patients in the derivation (CholeS) cohort. The median operative duration was 60 min (interquartile range 45–85), with 17.7% of operations lasting longer than 90 min. Ten factors were found to be significant independent predictors of operative durations > 90 min, including ASA, age, previous surgical admissions, BMI, gallbladder wall thickness and CBD diameter. A risk score was then produced from these factors, and applied to a cohort of 2405 patients from a tertiary centre for external validation. This returned an area under the ROC curve of 0.708 (SE = 0.013, p  90 min increasing more than eightfold from 5.1 to 41.8% in the extremes of the score. Conclusion: The scoring tool produced in this study was found to be significantly predictive of long operative durations on validation in an external cohort. As such, the tool may have the potential to enable organisations to better organise theatre lists and deliver greater efficiencies in care
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