80 research outputs found

    The multifaceted roles of gasdermins in cancer biology and oncologic therapies

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    The involvement of the Gasdermin (GSDM) protein family in cancer and other pathologies is one of the hottest topics in biomedical research. There are six GSDMs in humans (GSDMA, B, C, D, GSDME/DFNA5 and PJVK/DFNB59) and, except PJVK, they can trigger cell death mostly by pyroptosis (a form of lytic and pro-inflammatory cell death) but also other mechanisms. The exact role of GSDMs in cancer is intricate, since depending on the biological context, these proteins have diverse cell-death dependent and independent functions, exhibit either pro-tumor or anti-tumor functions, and promote either sensitization or resistance to oncologic treatments. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview on the multifaceted roles of the GSDMs in cancer, and we critically discuss the possibilities of exploiting GSDM functions as determinants of anti-cancer treatment and as novel therapeutic targets, with special emphasis on innovative GSDM-directed nano-therapies. Finally, we discuss the issues to be resolved before GSDM-mediated oncologic therapies became a reality at the clinical levelThis study was supported by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovaci¬īon (PID2019-104644RB-I00 -GMB-), the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CIBERONC, CB16/12/00295 ‚ÄďGMB-; partly supported by FEDER funds) and by the Fundaci¬īon Cient√≠fica de la AECC (FC_AECC PROYE19036MOR -GMB-

    IgE-reactivity pattern of tomato seed and peel nonspecific lipid-transfer proteins after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion

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    The influence of gastrointestinal digestion on the immunological properties of three different nonspecific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs) described in tomato fruit has been assessed using an in vitro system mimicking the stomach and intestine digestion conditions. Tomato peel/pulp nsLTP, Sola l 3, was degraded after digestion, although the immunoglobulin E (IgE) recognition of intact protein and a 10 kDa band were still observed after 30 min of duodenal digestion in the presence of phosphatidylcholine. The tomato seed nsLTP, Sola l 7, showed a higher stability than the other seed allergen, Sola l 6, during digestion. Sola l 7 showed an IgE immunoreactive 6.5 kDa band in immunoblotting analysis, retaining up to 7% of its IgE-binding capacity in inhibition ELISA test after 60 min of duodenal digestion and keeping intact its ability to activate basophils after digestion. These results suggest that the tomato seed allergen Sola l 7 might be considered as an important allergen in the induction of allergic responses to tomato due to its high stability against gastrointestinal digestion.This work was supported by grants SAF2017-86483-R from the Ministerio de Econom√≠a y Competitividad and PI13/00928 Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII), ISCIII cofounded by Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional ‚Äď FEDER for the Thematic Networks and Co-operative Research Centres; RIRAAF RD16/0006/0024 and ARADyAL (RD16/0006/0001; RD16/0006/0013; RD16/0006/0014); and EAACI Exchange Research Fellowship 2016. The authors would like to thank the excellent technical support of Sara Abi√°n. S.B. was supported by a Juan de la Cierva Incorporaci√≥n contract from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovaci√≥n y Universidades.Peer reviewe

    Multiplex RNA-based detection of clinically relevant MET alterations in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

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    We studied MET alterations in 474 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients by nCounter, an RNA-based technique. We identified 3% with MET őĒex14 mRNA and 3.5% with very-high MET mRNA expression, a surrogate of MET amplification. MET alterations identified by nCounter correlated with clinical benefit from MET inhibitors. Quantitative mRNA-based techniques can improve the selection of patients for MET-targeted therapies. MET inhibitors have shown activity in non-small-cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) with MET amplification and exon 14 skipping (METőĒex14). However, patient stratification is imperfect, and thus, response rates have varied widely. Here, we studied MET alterations in 474 advanced NSCLC patients by nCounter, an RNA-based technique, together with next-generation sequencing (NGS), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC), and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), exploring correlation with clinical benefit. Of the 474 samples analyzed, 422 (89%) yielded valid results by nCounter, which identified 13 patients (3%) with MET őĒex14 and 15 patients (3.5%) with very-high MET mRNA expression. These two subgroups were mutually exclusive, displayed distinct phenotypes and did not generally coexist with other drivers. For MET őĒex14, 3/8 (37.5%) samples positive by nCounter tested negative by NGS. Regarding patients with very-high MET mRNA, 92% had MET amplification by FISH and/or NGS. However, FISH failed to identify three patients (30%) with very-high MET RNA expression, among which one received MET tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment deriving clinical benefit. Our results indicate that quantitative mRNA-based techniques can improve the selection of patients for MET-targeted therapies

    Circulating Metabolites Associated with Alcohol Intake in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort.

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    Identifying the metabolites associated with alcohol consumption may provide insights into the metabolic pathways through which alcohol may affect human health. We studied associations of alcohol consumption with circulating concentrations of 123 metabolites among 2974 healthy participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Alcohol consumption at recruitment was self-reported through dietary questionnaires. Metabolite concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry (BIOCRATES AbsoluteIDQTM p180 kit). Data were randomly divided into discovery (2/3) and replication (1/3) sets. Multivariable linear regression models were used to evaluate confounder-adjusted associations of alcohol consumption with metabolite concentrations. Metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set (FDR q-value < 0.05) were further tested in the replication set (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 0.05). Of the 72 metabolites significantly related to alcohol intake in the discovery set, 34 were also significant in the replication analysis, including three acylcarnitines, the amino acid citrulline, four lysophosphatidylcholines, 13 diacylphosphatidylcholines, seven acyl-alkylphosphatidylcholines, and six sphingomyelins. Our results confirmed earlier findings that alcohol consumption was associated with several lipid metabolites, and possibly also with specific acylcarnitines and amino acids. This provides further leads for future research studies aiming at elucidating the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol in relation to morbid conditions

    Measurement of the Radiation Energy in the Radio Signal of Extensive Air Showers as a Universal Estimator of Cosmic-Ray Energy

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    We measure the energy emitted by extensive air showers in the form of radio emission in the frequency range from 30 to 80 MHz. Exploiting the accurate energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we obtain a radiation energy of 15.8 \pm 0.7 (stat) \pm 6.7 (sys) MeV for cosmic rays with an energy of 1 EeV arriving perpendicularly to a geomagnetic field of 0.24 G, scaling quadratically with the cosmic-ray energy. A comparison with predictions from state-of-the-art first-principle calculations shows agreement with our measurement. The radiation energy provides direct access to the calorimetric energy in the electromagnetic cascade of extensive air showers. Comparison with our result thus allows the direct calibration of any cosmic-ray radio detector against the well-established energy scale of the Pierre Auger Observatory.Comment: Replaced with published version. Added journal reference and DOI. Supplemental material in the ancillary file

    Multi-ancestry GWAS reveals excitotoxicity associated with outcome after ischaemic stroke

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    During the first hours after stroke onset, neurological deficits can be highly unstable: some patients rapidly improve, while others deteriorate. This early neurological instability has a major impact on long-term outcome. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic architecture of early neurological instability measured by the difference between the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) within 6 h of stroke onset and NIHSS at 24 h. A total of 5876 individuals from seven countries (Spain, Finland, Poland, USA, Costa Rica, Mexico and Korea) were studied using a multi-ancestry meta-analyses. We found that 8.7% of NIHSS at 24 h of variance was explained by common genetic variations, and also that early neurological instability has a different genetic architecture from that of stroke risk. Eight loci (1p21.1, 1q42.2, 2p25.1, 2q31.2, 2q33.3, 5q33.2, 7p21.2 and 13q31.1) were genome-wide significant and explained 1.8% of the variability suggesting that additional variants influence early change in neurological deficits. We used functional genomics and bioinformatic annotation to identify the genes driving the association from each locus. Expression quantitative trait loci mapping and summary data-based Mendelian randomization indicate that ADAM23 (log Bayes factor = 5.41) was driving the association for 2q33.3. Gene-based analyses suggested that GRIA1 (log Bayes factor = 5.19), which is predominantly expressed in the brain, is the gene driving the association for the 5q33.2 locus. These analyses also nominated GNPAT (log Bayes factor = 7.64) ABCB5 (log Bayes factor = 5.97) for the 1p21.1 and 7p21.1 loci. Human brain single-nuclei RNA-sequencing indicates that the gene expression of ADAM23 and GRIA1 is enriched in neurons. ADAM23, a presynaptic protein and GRIA1, a protein subunit of the AMPA receptor, are part of a synaptic protein complex that modulates neuronal excitability. These data provide the first genetic evidence in humans that excitotoxicity may contribute to early neurological instability after acute ischaemic stroke. Ibanez et al. perform a multi-ancestry meta-analysis to investigate the genetic architecture of early stroke outcomes. Two of the eight genome-wide significant loci identified-ADAM23 and GRIA1-are involved in synaptic excitability, suggesting that excitotoxicity contributes to neurological instability after ischaemic stroke.Peer reviewe

    Treatment with tocilizumab or corticosteroids for COVID-19 patients with hyperinflammatory state: a multicentre cohort study (SAM-COVID-19)

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    Objectives: The objective of this study was to estimate the association between tocilizumab or corticosteroids and the risk of intubation or death in patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) with a hyperinflammatory state according to clinical and laboratory parameters. Methods: A cohort study was performed in 60 Spanish hospitals including 778 patients with COVID-19 and clinical and laboratory data indicative of a hyperinflammatory state. Treatment was mainly with tocilizumab, an intermediate-high dose of corticosteroids (IHDC), a pulse dose of corticosteroids (PDC), combination therapy, or no treatment. Primary outcome was intubation or death; follow-up was 21 days. Propensity score-adjusted estimations using Cox regression (logistic regression if needed) were calculated. Propensity scores were used as confounders, matching variables and for the inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs). Results: In all, 88, 117, 78 and 151 patients treated with tocilizumab, IHDC, PDC, and combination therapy, respectively, were compared with 344 untreated patients. The primary endpoint occurred in 10 (11.4%), 27 (23.1%), 12 (15.4%), 40 (25.6%) and 69 (21.1%), respectively. The IPTW-based hazard ratios (odds ratio for combination therapy) for the primary endpoint were 0.32 (95%CI 0.22-0.47; p < 0.001) for tocilizumab, 0.82 (0.71-1.30; p 0.82) for IHDC, 0.61 (0.43-0.86; p 0.006) for PDC, and 1.17 (0.86-1.58; p 0.30) for combination therapy. Other applications of the propensity score provided similar results, but were not significant for PDC. Tocilizumab was also associated with lower hazard of death alone in IPTW analysis (0.07; 0.02-0.17; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Tocilizumab might be useful in COVID-19 patients with a hyperinflammatory state and should be prioritized for randomized trials in this situatio
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