8,740 research outputs found

    A sharpened nuclearity condition for massless fields

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    A recently proposed phase space condition which comprises information about the vacuum structure and timelike asymptotic behavior of physical states is verified in massless free field theory. There follow interesting conclusions about the momentum transfer of local operators in this model.Comment: 13 pages, LaTeX. As appeared in Letters in Mathematical Physic

    There are No Causality Problems for Fermi's Two Atom System

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    A repeatedly discussed gedanken experiment, proposed by Fermi to check Einstein causality, is reconsidered. It is shown that, contrary to a recent statement made by Hegerfeldt, there appears no causality paradoxon in a proper theoretical description of the experiment.Comment: 6 pages, latex, DESY 94-02

    Nuclearity and Thermal States in Conformal Field Theory

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    We introduce a new type of spectral density condition, that we call L^2-nuclearity. One formulation concerns lowest weight unitary representations of SL(2,R) and turns out to be equivalent to the existence of characters. A second formulation concerns inclusions of local observable von Neumann algebras in Quantum Field Theory. We show the two formulations to agree in chiral Conformal QFT and, starting from the trace class condition for the semigroup generated by the conformal Hamiltonian L_0, we infer and naturally estimate the Buchholz-Wichmann nuclearity condition and the (distal) split property. As a corollary, if L_0 is log-elliptic, the Buchholz-Junglas set up is realized and so there exists a beta-KMS state for the translation dynamics on the net of C*-algebras for every inverse temperature beta>0. We include further discussions on higher dimensional spacetimes. In particular, we verify that L^2-nuclearity is satisfied for the scalar, massless Klein-Gordon field.Comment: 37 pages, minor correction

    Assessment and preliminary design of an energy buffer for regenerative braking in electric vehicles

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    Energy buffer systems, capable of storing the vehicle energy during braking and reusing this stored energy during acceleration, were examined. Some of these buffer systems when incorporated in an electric vehicle would result in an improvement in the performance and range under stop and go driving conditions. Buffer systems considered included flywheels, hydropneumatic, pneumatic, spring, and regenerative braking. Buffer ranking and rating criteria were established. Buffer systems were rated based on predicted range improvements, consumer acceptance, driveability, safety, reliability and durability, and initial and life cycle costs. A hydropneumatic buffer system was selected

    String-- and Brane--Localized Causal Fields in a Strongly Nonlocal Model

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    We study a weakly local, but nonlocal model in spacetime dimension d≥2d \geq 2 and prove that it is maximally nonlocal in a certain specific quantitative sense. Nevertheless, depending on the number of dimensions dd, it has string--localized or brane--localized operators which commute at spatial distances. In two spacetime dimensions, the model even comprises a covariant and local subnet of operators localized in bounded subsets of Minkowski space which has a nontrivial scattering matrix. The model thus exemplifies the algebraic construction of local observables from algebras associated with nonlocal fields.Comment: paper re-written with a change of emphasis and new result

    The Hot Bang state of massless fermions

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    In 2002, a method has been proposed by Buchholz et al. in the context of Local Quantum Physics, to characterize states that are locally in thermodynamic equilibrium. It could be shown for the model of massless bosons that these states exhibit quite interesting properties. The mean phase-space density satisfies a transport equation, and many of these states break time reversal symmetry. Moreover, an explicit example of such a state, called the Hot Bang state, could be found, which models the future of a temperature singularity. However, although the general results carry over to the fermionic case easily, the proof of existence of an analogue of the Hot Bang state is not quite that straightforward. The proof will be given in this paper. Moreover, we will discuss some of the mathematical subtleties which arise in the fermionic case.Comment: 17 page

    Warped Convolutions, Rieffel Deformations and the Construction of Quantum Field Theories

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    Warped convolutions of operators were recently introduced in the algebraic framework of quantum physics as a new constructive tool. It is shown here that these convolutions provide isometric representations of Rieffel's strict deformations of C*-dynamical systems with automorphic actions of R^n, whenever the latter are presented in a covariant representation. Moreover, the device can be used for the deformation of relativistic quantum field theories by adjusting the convolutions to the geometry of Minkowski space. The resulting deformed theories still comply with pertinent physical principles and their Tomita-Takesaki modular data coincide with those of the undeformed theory; but they are in general inequivalent to the undeformed theory and exhibit different physical interpretations.Comment: 34 page

    The Quest for Understanding in Relativistic Quantum Physics

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    We discuss the status and some perspectives of relativistic quantum physics.Comment: Invited contribution to the Special Issue 2000 of the Journal of Mathematical Physics, 38 pages, typos corrected and references added, as to appear in JM

    Passive States for Essential Observers

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    The aim of this note is to present a unified approach to the results given in \cite{bb99} and \cite{bs04} which also covers examples of models not presented in these two papers (e.g. dd-dimensional Minkowski space-time for d≥3d\geq 3). Assuming that a state is passive for an observer travelling along certain (essential) worldlines, we show that this state is invariant under the isometry group, is a KMS-state for the observer at a temperature uniquely determined by the structure constants of the Lie algebra involved and fulfills (a variant of) the Reeh-Schlieder property. Also the modular objects associated to such a state and the observable algebra of an observer are computed and a version of weak locality is examined.Comment: 27 page

    Cartilage on the Move: Cartilage Lineage Tracing During Tadpole Metamorphosis

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    The reorganization of cranial cartilages during tadpole metamorphosis is a set of complex processes. The fates of larval cartilage-forming cells (chondrocytes) and sources of adult chondrocytes are largely unknown. Individual larval cranial cartilages may either degenerate or remodel, while many adult cartilages appear to form de novo during metamorphosis. Determining the extent to which adult chondrocytes/cartilages are derived from larval chondrocytes during metamorphosis requires new techniques in chondrocyte lineage tracing. We have developed two transgenic systems to label cartilage cells throughout the body with fluorescent proteins. One system strongly labels early tadpole cartilages only. The other system inducibly labels forming cartilages at any developmental stage. We examined cartilages of the skull (viscero- and neurocranium), and identified larval cartilages that either resorb or remodel into adult cartilages. Our data show that the adult otic capsules, tecti anterius and posterius, hyale, and portions of Meckel\u27s cartilage are derived from larval chondrocytes. Our data also suggest that most adult cartilages form de novo, though we cannot rule out the potential for extreme larval chondrocyte proliferation or de- and re-differentiation, which could dilute our fluorescent protein signal. The transgenic lineage tracing strategies developed here are the first examples of inducible, skeleton-specific, lineage tracing in Xenopus
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