8,740 research outputs found

### A sharpened nuclearity condition for massless fields

A recently proposed phase space condition which comprises information about
the vacuum structure and timelike asymptotic behavior of physical states is
verified in massless free field theory. There follow interesting conclusions
about the momentum transfer of local operators in this model.Comment: 13 pages, LaTeX. As appeared in Letters in Mathematical Physic

### There are No Causality Problems for Fermi's Two Atom System

A repeatedly discussed gedanken experiment, proposed by Fermi to check
Einstein causality, is reconsidered. It is shown that, contrary to a recent
statement made by Hegerfeldt, there appears no causality paradoxon in a proper
theoretical description of the experiment.Comment: 6 pages, latex, DESY 94-02

### Nuclearity and Thermal States in Conformal Field Theory

We introduce a new type of spectral density condition, that we call
L^2-nuclearity. One formulation concerns lowest weight unitary representations
of SL(2,R) and turns out to be equivalent to the existence of characters. A
second formulation concerns inclusions of local observable von Neumann algebras
in Quantum Field Theory. We show the two formulations to agree in chiral
Conformal QFT and, starting from the trace class condition for the semigroup
generated by the conformal Hamiltonian L_0, we infer and naturally estimate the
Buchholz-Wichmann nuclearity condition and the (distal) split property. As a
corollary, if L_0 is log-elliptic, the Buchholz-Junglas set up is realized and
so there exists a beta-KMS state for the translation dynamics on the net of
C*-algebras for every inverse temperature beta>0. We include further
discussions on higher dimensional spacetimes. In particular, we verify that
L^2-nuclearity is satisfied for the scalar, massless Klein-Gordon field.Comment: 37 pages, minor correction

### Assessment and preliminary design of an energy buffer for regenerative braking in electric vehicles

Energy buffer systems, capable of storing the vehicle energy during braking and reusing this stored energy during acceleration, were examined. Some of these buffer systems when incorporated in an electric vehicle would result in an improvement in the performance and range under stop and go driving conditions. Buffer systems considered included flywheels, hydropneumatic, pneumatic, spring, and regenerative braking. Buffer ranking and rating criteria were established. Buffer systems were rated based on predicted range improvements, consumer acceptance, driveability, safety, reliability and durability, and initial and life cycle costs. A hydropneumatic buffer system was selected

### String-- and Brane--Localized Causal Fields in a Strongly Nonlocal Model

We study a weakly local, but nonlocal model in spacetime dimension $d \geq 2$
and prove that it is maximally nonlocal in a certain specific quantitative
sense. Nevertheless, depending on the number of dimensions $d$, it has
string--localized or brane--localized operators which commute at spatial
distances. In two spacetime dimensions, the model even comprises a covariant
and local subnet of operators localized in bounded subsets of Minkowski space
which has a nontrivial scattering matrix. The model thus exemplifies the
algebraic construction of local observables from algebras associated with
nonlocal fields.Comment: paper re-written with a change of emphasis and new result

### The Hot Bang state of massless fermions

In 2002, a method has been proposed by Buchholz et al. in the context of
Local Quantum Physics, to characterize states that are locally in thermodynamic
equilibrium. It could be shown for the model of massless bosons that these
states exhibit quite interesting properties. The mean phase-space density
satisfies a transport equation, and many of these states break time reversal
symmetry. Moreover, an explicit example of such a state, called the Hot Bang
state, could be found, which models the future of a temperature singularity.
However, although the general results carry over to the fermionic case easily,
the proof of existence of an analogue of the Hot Bang state is not quite that
straightforward. The proof will be given in this paper. Moreover, we will
discuss some of the mathematical subtleties which arise in the fermionic case.Comment: 17 page

### Warped Convolutions, Rieffel Deformations and the Construction of Quantum Field Theories

Warped convolutions of operators were recently introduced in the algebraic
framework of quantum physics as a new constructive tool. It is shown here that
these convolutions provide isometric representations of Rieffel's strict
deformations of C*-dynamical systems with automorphic actions of R^n, whenever
the latter are presented in a covariant representation. Moreover, the device
can be used for the deformation of relativistic quantum field theories by
adjusting the convolutions to the geometry of Minkowski space. The resulting
deformed theories still comply with pertinent physical principles and their
Tomita-Takesaki modular data coincide with those of the undeformed theory; but
they are in general inequivalent to the undeformed theory and exhibit different
physical interpretations.Comment: 34 page

### The Quest for Understanding in Relativistic Quantum Physics

We discuss the status and some perspectives of relativistic quantum physics.Comment: Invited contribution to the Special Issue 2000 of the Journal of
Mathematical Physics, 38 pages, typos corrected and references added, as to
appear in JM

### Passive States for Essential Observers

The aim of this note is to present a unified approach to the results given in
\cite{bb99} and \cite{bs04} which also covers examples of models not presented
in these two papers (e.g. $d$-dimensional Minkowski space-time for $d\geq 3$).
Assuming that a state is passive for an observer travelling along certain
(essential) worldlines, we show that this state is invariant under the isometry
group, is a KMS-state for the observer at a temperature uniquely determined by
the structure constants of the Lie algebra involved and fulfills (a variant of)
the Reeh-Schlieder property. Also the modular objects associated to such a
state and the observable algebra of an observer are computed and a version of
weak locality is examined.Comment: 27 page

### Cartilage on the Move: Cartilage Lineage Tracing During Tadpole Metamorphosis

The reorganization of cranial cartilages during tadpole metamorphosis is a set of complex processes. The fates of larval cartilage-forming cells (chondrocytes) and sources of adult chondrocytes are largely unknown. Individual larval cranial cartilages may either degenerate or remodel, while many adult cartilages appear to form de novo during metamorphosis. Determining the extent to which adult chondrocytes/cartilages are derived from larval chondrocytes during metamorphosis requires new techniques in chondrocyte lineage tracing. We have developed two transgenic systems to label cartilage cells throughout the body with fluorescent proteins. One system strongly labels early tadpole cartilages only. The other system inducibly labels forming cartilages at any developmental stage. We examined cartilages of the skull (viscero- and neurocranium), and identified larval cartilages that either resorb or remodel into adult cartilages. Our data show that the adult otic capsules, tecti anterius and posterius, hyale, and portions of Meckel\u27s cartilage are derived from larval chondrocytes. Our data also suggest that most adult cartilages form de novo, though we cannot rule out the potential for extreme larval chondrocyte proliferation or de- and re-differentiation, which could dilute our fluorescent protein signal. The transgenic lineage tracing strategies developed here are the first examples of inducible, skeleton-specific, lineage tracing in Xenopus

- â€¦