463 research outputs found

    Bridged Bicyclic Compounds

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    This thesis is concerned with certain aspects of the application of Bredt's Rule in bridged bicyclic compounds. The reported monodecarboxylation of bicyclo[2,2,2]-octane-2,5-dione-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (1) to give bicyclo-[2,2,2]octane-2,5-dione-l-carboxylic acid (2) has been found to be genuine, and the structure of the product has been confirmed by synthesis. Bicyclo[2,2,2]octan-2-one-1-carboxylic acid (3) has also been prepared, and (2) and (3) have been shown to be resistant to decarboxylation. The decarboxylation of (1) has been found to proceed with racemisation, and conclusions have been drawn concern- ing the mechanism of the reaction. The Cope elimination has been shown to be unsatisfactory in generating the strained alkene bicyclo[2,2,2]oct-1-ene. Two synthetic approaches to bicyclo[4,3,1]decane-2,9-dione, a key intermediate for the study of isomeric "anti-Bredt" alkenes, were unsuccessful, as were attempts to prepare a derivative of the [5]-metacyclophane system

    The changing ethnic profiles of Scotland and Glasgow, and the implications for population health

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    Oral presentation abstract

    Multi-decadal environmental change in the Barents Sea recorded by seal teeth

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    This work resulted from the ARISE project (NE/P006035/1, NE/P006000/1), part of the Changing Arctic Ocean programme, jointly funded by the UKRI Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). We thank Jim Ball for his help in the isotopic lab in Liverpool University. This work resulted from the ARISE project, part of the Changing Arctic Ocean programme.Multiple environmental forcings, such as warming and changes in ocean circulation and nutrient supply, are affecting the base of Arctic marine ecosystems, with cascading effects on the entire food web through bottom-up control. Stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N) can be used to detect and unravel the impact of these forcings on this unique ecosystem, if the many processes that affect the δ15N values are constrained. Combining unique 60-year records from compound specific δ15N biomarkers on harp seal teeth alongside state-of-the-art ocean modelling, we observed a significant decline in the δ15N values at the base of the Barents Sea food web from 1951 to 2012. This strong and persistent decadal trend emerges due to the combination of anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Atlantic, increased northward transport of Atlantic water through Arctic gateways and local feedbacks from increasing Arctic primary production. Our results suggest that the Arctic ecosystem has been responding to anthropogenically induced local and remote drivers, linked to changing ocean biology, chemistry and physics, for at least 60 years. Accounting for these trends in δ15N values at the base of the food web is essential to accurately detect ecosystem restructuring in this rapidly changing environment.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Newsprint coverage of smoking in cars carrying children : a case study of public and scientific opinion driving the policy debate

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    Acknowledgements Date of Acceptance:17/10/2014 Acknowledgements: This project was funded by Cancer Research UK (MC_U130085862) and the Scottish School of Public Health Research. Cancer Research UK and the Scottish School of Public Health Research was not involved in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data, writing of the manuscript or the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Shona Hilton, Karen Wood, Josh Bain and Chris Patterson are funded by the UK Medical Research Council as part of the Understandings and Uses of Public Health Research programme (MC_UU_12017/6) at the MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. We thank Alan Pollock who provided assistance with coding.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    An Arctic strait of two halves: The changing dynamics of nutrient uptake and limitation across the Fram Strait

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    The hydrography of the Arctic Seas is being altered by ongoing climate change, with knock-on effects to nutrient dynamics and primary production. As the major pathway of exchange between the Arctic and the Atlantic, the Fram Strait hosts two distinct water masses in the upper water column, northward flowing warm and saline Atlantic Waters in the east, and southward flowing cold and fresh Polar Surface Water in the west. Here, we assess how physical processes control nutrient dynamics in the Fram Strait using nitrogen isotope data collected during 2016 and 2018. In Atlantic Waters, a weakly stratified water column and a shallow nitracline reduce nitrogen limitation. To the west, in Polar Surface Water, nitrogen limitation is greater because stronger stratification inhibits nutrient resupply from deeper water and lateral nitrate supply from central Arctic waters is low. A historical hindcast simulation of ocean biogeochemistry from 1970 to 2019 corroborates these findings and highlights a strong link between nitrate supply to Atlantic Waters and the depth of winter mixing, which shoaled during the simulation in response to a local reduction in sea-ice formation. Overall, we find that while the eastern Fram Strait currently experiences seasonal nutrient replenishment and high primary production, the loss of winter sea ice and continued atmospheric warming has the potential to inhibit deep winter mixing and limit primary production in the future

    Affordances, constraints and information flows as ‘leverage points’ in design for sustainable behaviour

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    Copyright @ 2012 Social Science Electronic PublishingTwo of Donella Meadows' 'leverage points' for intervening in systems (1999) seem particularly pertinent to design for sustainable behaviour, in the sense that designers may have the scope to implement them in (re-)designing everyday products and services. The 'rules of the system' -- interpreted here to refer to affordances and constraints -- and the structure of information flows both offer a range of opportunities for design interventions to in fluence behaviour change, and in this paper, some of the implications and possibilities are discussed with reference to parallel concepts from within design, HCI and relevant areas of psychology

    Limitations of student-driven formative assessment in a clinical clerkship. A randomised controlled trial

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    Background Teachers strive to motivate their students to be self-directed learners. One of the methods used is to provide online formative assessment material. The concept of formative assessment and use of these processes is heavily promoted, despite limited evidence as to their efficacy.Methods Fourth year medical students, in their first year of clinical work were divided into four groups. In addition to the usual clinical material, three of the groups were provided with some form of supplementary learning material. For two groups, this was provided as online formative assessment. The amount of time students spent on the supplementary material was measured, their opinion on learning methods was surveyed, and their performance in summative exams at the end of their surgical attachments was measured.Results The performance of students was independent of any educational intervention imposed by this study. Despite its ready availability and promotion, student use of the online formative tools was poor.Conclusion Formative learning is an ideal not necessarily embraced by students. If formative assessment is to work students need to be encouraged to participate, probably by implementing some form of summative assessment.Edward J Palmer and Peter G Devit

    Mechanistic implications of the active species involved in the oxidation of hydrocarbons by iron complexes of pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid

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    The reactivity towards H2O2 of the complexes [Fe(pca)2(py)2]·py (1) and Na2{[Fe(pca3)]2O}·2H2O·CH3CN (2) (where pca− is pyrazine-2-carboxylate) and their catalytic activity in the oxidation of hydrocarbons is reported. Addition of H2O2 to 1 results in the formation of a dinuclear Fe(III)–(µ-O)–Fe(III) species characterized spectroscopically and by cyclic voltammetry. By contrast, treatment of 2 with H2O2 results in the formation of mononuclear iron(II) complexes, [Fe(pca)2(solvent)2]. The experimental results indicate that the catalytic activity of the starting complexes 1 and 2 is strongly dependent on the species formed in solution.
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