17,431 research outputs found

    Exponential Decay and Fermi's Golden Rule from an Uncontrolled Quantum Zeno Effect

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    We modify the theory of the Quantum Zeno Effect to make it consistent with the postulates of quantum mechanics. This modification allows one, throughout a sequence of observations of an excited system, to address the nature of the observable and thereby to distinguish survival from non-decay, which is necessary whenever excited states are degenerate. As a consequence, one can determine which types of measurements can possibly inhibit the exponential decay of the system. We find that continuous monitoring taken as the limit of a sequence of ideal measurements will only inhibit decay in special cases, such as in well-controlled experiments. Uncontrolled monitoring of an unstable system, however, can cause exponentially decreasing non-decay probability at all times. Furthermore, calculating the decay rate for a general sequence of observations leads to a straightforward derivation of Fermi's Golden Rule, that avoids many of the conceptual difficulties normally encountered. When multiple decay channels are available, the derivation reveals how the total decay rate naturally partitions into a sum of the decay rates for the various channels, in agreement with observations. Continuous and unavoidable monitoring of an excited system by an uncontrolled environment may therefore be a mechanism by which to explain the exponential decay law.Comment: 18 pages, no figures. Added references to theory and experiments, distinguished survival from non-decay, and added derivation for multiple decay channel

    Special treatment reduces helium permeation of glass in vacuum systems

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    Internal surfaces of the glass component of a vacuum system are exposed to cesium in gaseous form to reduce helium permeation. The cesium gas is derived from decomposition of cesium nitrate through heating. Several minutes of exposure of the internal surfaces of the glass vessel are sufficient to complete the treatment

    Constructing compact 8-manifolds with holonomy Spin(7) from Calabi-Yau orbifolds

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    Compact Riemannian 7- and 8-manifolds with holonomy G(2) arid Spin(7) were first constructed by the author in 1994-5, by resolving orbifolds T-7/Gamma and T-8/Gamma. This paper describes a new construction of compact 8-manifolds with holonomy Spin(7). We start with a Calabi-Yau 4-orbifold Y with isolated singularities of a special kind. We divide by an antiholomorphic involution a of Y to get a real 8-orbifold Z = Y/. Then we resolve tire singularities of Z to get a compact 8-manifold M, which has metrics with holonomy Spin(7). Manifolds constructed in this way typically have large fourth Betti number b(4)(M).</sigma
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