1,783 research outputs found

    Two-Face(s): ionized and neutral gas winds in the local Universe

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    We present a comprehensive study of the Na I λ\lambda5890, 5895 (Na I D) resonant lines in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, DR7) spectroscopic sample to look for neutral gas outflows in the local galaxies. Individual galaxy spectra are stacked in bins of M{\star} and SFR to investigate the dependence of galactic wind occurrence and velocity as a function of the galaxy position in the SFR-MM{\star} plane. In massive galaxies at the high SFR tail we find evidence of a significant blue-shifted Na I D absorption, which we interpret as evidence of neutral outflowing gas. The occurrence of the blue-shifted absorption is observed at the same significance for purely SF galaxies, AGN and composite systems at fixed SFR. In all classes of objects the blue-shift is the largest and the Na I D equivalent width the smallest for face-on galaxies while the absorption feature is at the systemic velocity for edge-on systems. This indicates that the neutral outflow is mostly perpendicular or biconical with respect to the galactic disk. We also compare the kinematics of the neutral gas with the ionized gas phase as traced by the [OIII]λ\lambda5007, Hα\alpha, [NII]λ6548\lambda6548 and [NII]λ6584\lambda6584 emission lines. Differently for the neutral gas phase, all the emission lines show evidence of perturbed kinematics only in galaxies with a significant level of nuclear activity and, they are independent from the disk inclination. In conclusion, we find that, in the local Universe, galactic winds show two faces which are related to two different ejection mechanisms, namely the neutral outflowing gas phase related to the SF activity along the galaxy disk and the ionized phase related to the AGN feedback. In both the neutral and ionized gas phases, the observed wind velocities suggest that the outflowing gas remains bound to the galaxy with no definitive effect on the gas reservoir.Comment: Accepted to A&A, 13 pages, 9 figure

    Properties of the integrated spectrum of serendipitous 2XMM catalogue sources

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    Our analysis is aimed at characterizing the properties of the integrated spectrum of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) such as the ubiquity of the Fe K{\alpha} emission in AGNs and the dependence of the spectral parameters on the X-ray luminosity and redshift. We selected 2646 point sources from the 2XMM catalogue at high galactic latitude (|BII| > 25 degrees) and with the sum of EPIC-PN and EPIC-MOS 0.2-12 keV counts greater than 1000. Redshifts were obtained for 916 sources from the NED. The final sample consists of 507 AGN. Individual source spectra have been summed in the observed frame to compute the integrated spectra in different redshift and luminosity bins over the range 0<z<5. Detailed analysis of these spectra has been performed. We find that the narrow Fe K{\alpha} line at 6.4 keV is significantly detected up to z=1. The line equivalent width decreases with increasing X-ray luminosity in the 2-10 keV band (''IT effect''). The anti-correlation is characterized by the relation log(EWFe) = (1.66 +/- 0.09) + (-0.43 +/- 0.07) log(LX,44), where EWFe is the rest frame equivalent width of the neutral iron K{\alpha} line in eV and LX,44 is the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity in units of 10^{44} erg s^{-1}. The equivalent width is nearly independent of redshift up to z ~ 0.8 with an average value of 101+/-40 (rms dispersion) eV in the luminosity range 43.5<= logLX <= 44.5. Our analysis also confirmed the hardening of the spectral indices at low luminosities implying a dependence of obscuration on luminosity. We confirm that the neutral narrow Fe K{\alpha} line is an almost ubiquitous feature of AGNs. We find compelling evidence for the ''IT effect'' over a redshift interval larger than probed in any previous study. We detect no evolution of the average rest frame equivalent width of the Fe K{\alpha} line with redshift.Comment: 10 pages, 7 figures, 2 Tables. A&A in pres

    The clustering properties of radio-selected AGN and star-forming galaxies up to redshifts z~3

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    We present the clustering properties of a complete sample of 968 radio sources detected at 1.4 GHz by the VLA-COSMOS survey with radio fluxes brighter than 0.15 mJy. 92% have redshift determinations from the Laigle et al. (2016) catalogue. Based on their radio-luminosity, these objects have been divided into two populations of 644 AGN and 247 star-forming galaxies. By fixing the slope of the auto-correlation function to gamma=2, we find r_0=11.7^{+1.0}_{-1.1} Mpc for the clustering length of the whole sample, while r_0=11.2^{+2.5}_{-3.3} Mpc and r_0=7.8^{+1.6}_{-2.1} Mpc (r_0=6.8^{+1.4}_{-1.8} Mpc if we restrict our analysis to z<0.9) are respectively obtained for AGN and star-forming galaxies. These values correspond to minimum masses for dark matter haloes of M_min=10^[13.6^{+0.3}_{-0.6}] M_sun for radio-selected AGN and M_min=10^[13.1^{+0.4}_{-1.6}] M_sun for radio-emitting star-forming galaxies (M_min=10^[12.7^{+0.7}_{-2.2}] M_sun for z<0.9). Comparisons with previous works imply an independence of the clustering properties of the AGN population with respect to both radio luminosity and redshift. We also investigate the relationship between dark and luminous matter in both populations. We obtain /M_halo/M_halo<~10^{-2.4} in the case of star-forming galaxies. Furthermore, if we restrict to z<~0.9 star-forming galaxies, we derive /M_halo<~10^{-2.1}, result which clearly indicates the cosmic process of stellar build-up as one moves towards the more local universe. Comparisons between the observed space density of radio-selected AGN and that of dark matter haloes shows that about one in two haloes is associated with a black hole in its radio-active phase. This suggests that the radio-active phase is a recurrent phenomenon.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, minor changes to match published version on MNRA

    Molecular outflow and feedback in the obscured quasar XID2028 revealed by ALMA

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    We imaged, with ALMA and ARGOS/LUCI, the molecular gas and dust and stellar continuum in XID2028, which is an obscured quasi-stellar object (QSO) at z = 1.593, where the presence of a massive outflow in the ionised gas component traced by the [OIII]5007 emission has been resolved up to 10 kpc. This target represents a unique test case to study QSO feedback in action at the peak epoch of AGN-galaxy co-evolution. The QSO was detected in the CO(5 − 4) transition and in the 1.3 mm continuum at ~30 and ~20σ significance, respectively; both emissions are confined in the central (<2 kpc) radius area. Our analysis suggests the presence of a fast rotating molecular disc (v ~ 400 km s^(−1)) on very compact scales well inside the galaxy extent seen in the rest-frame optical light (~10 kpc, as inferred from the LUCI data). Adding available measurements in additional two CO transitions, CO(2 − 1) and CO(3 − 2), we could derive a total gas mass of ~10^(10) M⊙, thanks to a critical assessment of CO excitation and the comparison with the Rayleigh–Jeans continuum estimate. This translates into a very low gas fraction (<5%) and depletion timescales of 40–75 Myr, reinforcing the result of atypical gas consumption conditions in XID2028, possibly because of feedback effects on the host galaxy. Finally, we also detect the presence of high velocity CO gas at ~5σ, which we interpret as a signature of galaxy-scale molecular outflow that is spatially coincident with the ionised gas outflow. XID2028 therefore represents a unique case in which the measurement of total outflowing mass, of ~500–800 M⊙ yr^(−1) including the molecular and atomic components in both the ionised and neutral phases, was attempted for a high-z QSO

    Rest-frame stacking of 2XMM catalog sources : Properties of the Fe Kalpha line

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    The aim of this work is to characterize the average Fe K emission properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the source rest-frame. We selected a sample of 248 AGNs from the 2XMM catalog, covering a wide redshift range 0 < z < 5 and with the EPIC-PN net 2-10 keV rest-frame counts >=200 and power law photon indices in the range 1.5-2.2. We employed two fully independent rest-frame stacking procedures to compute the mean Fe K profile. The counting statistics for the integrated spectrum is comparable to the one available for the best studied local Seyferts. To identify the artifacts possibly introduced by the stacking procedure, we have carried out simulations. We report that the average Fe K line profile in our sample is best represented by a combination of a narrow and a broad line. The equivalent widths of the narrow and broad (parametrized with a diskline) components are ~30 eV and ~100 eV, respectively. We also discuss the results of more complex fits and the implications of the adopted continuum modeling on the broad line parameters and its detection significance.Comment: 13 pages, 13 figures, Accepted for publication in A&