5,639 research outputs found

    The physiologic correlates of learning in the classroom environment

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    This study served to further investigate learning and memory, and to offer a potential tool to support educational interventions. More specifically, this was accomplished by an investigation of the physiologic changes in the brain that occurred while students learned medical anatomy. A group of 29 students taking the Gross Anatomy course at Boston University School of Medicine participated in the study. Testing occurred in two sessions: prior to the course and at the completion of the course. For each session, scalp EEG was recorded while participants were shown 176 anatomical terms (132 relevant to the course and 44 obscure) and asked to respond with "Can Define", "Familiar", or "Don't Know". Behavioral results indicated a positive correlation between participants' course grades and performance on the experimental tasks. EEG results were analyzed for event-related potential (ERP) components related to two memory components: familiarity and recollection. Results had a number of indications. For Don't Know responses, a stronger early frontal, late parietal, and late frontal effect occurred more so for terms of Session 1 compared to Session 2. For an analysis of just Session 2 data, results indicated increased activity of the early frontal, late parietal, and late frontal effects for Can Define responses only. Session 2 Can Define responses elicited a stronger early frontal ERP, occurring between 300 and 500 milliseconds yet, the most post-retrieval processing and monitoring appeared for Can Define terms of Session 2. Ultimately, we focused on investigating two points: 1) the effect of classroom learning on memory, and 2) the examination of ERPs as a tool to guide education interventions. Specifically, ERPs would potentially indicate markers to predict whether students would retain materials long before behavioral measures indicate these results. This has potential to determine whether long-lasting or transient learning will occur; as well as the potential to support early intervention strategies for not just students, but also individuals with learning disabilities or memory impairments

    Galectin genes: regulation of expression.

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    In this review we have summarized the more recent studies on the expression of mammalian galectins. One interesting observation that can be made is that in most of microarrays and/or differential display analysis performed in recent years one or more galectins have been picked up. From a critical evaluation of the pertinent studies the main conclusion that can be drawn is that, although it is not yet clear whether the 14 galectins identified so far have functions in common, a striking common feature of all galectins is the strong modulation of their expression during development, differentiation stages and under different physiological or pathological conditions. This suggests that the expression of different galectins is finely tuned and possibly coordinated. In spite of these observations it is rather unexpected that very few studies have been performed on the molecular mechanisms governing the activity of galectin genes

    Transfer of metal ions at the soil-root interface: role of VO<sup>2+</sup> on Fe<sup>3+</sup> mobilization from a Fe(III)-network

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    This note reports the role of VO(IV) on Fe(III) mobilization from a Fe(III)-polygalacturonate network. The effect of the reaction on the physical properties of the system is also considered

    Brain Mass and Encephalization Quotients in the Domestic Industrial Pig (Sus scrofa)

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    open6siIn the present study we examined the brain of fetal, newborn, and adult pigs raised for meat production. The fresh and formalin-fixed weights of the brain have been recorded and used, together with body weight, to calculate the Encephalization Quotient (EQ). The weight of the cerebellum has been used to calculate the Cerebellar Quotient (CQ). The results have been discussed together with analogue data obtained in other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla (including the domestic bovine, sheep, goat, and camel), domesticated Carnivora, Proboscidata, and Primates. Our study, based on a relatively large experimental series, corrects former observations present in the literature based on smaller samples, and emphasizes that the domestic pig has a small brain relative to its body size (EQ = 0.38 for adults), possibly due to factors linked to the necessity of meat production and improved body weight. Comparison with other terrestrial Cetartiodactyla indicates a similar trend for all domesticated species.openMinervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graïc, Jean-Marie; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, SalvatoreMinervini, Serena; Accogli, Gianluca; Pirone, Andrea; Graic, JEAN-MARIE; Cozzi, Bruno; Desantis, Salvator

    Proposal for a Low-Cost Monitoring System to Assess the Pavement Deterioration in Urban Roads

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    Effective scheduling of pavement monitoring and maintenance activities plays a pivotal role in ensuring safety and comfort for road users. The Pavement Management System (PMS) is a traditional tool to assist the road manager in the decision-making process on which priority maintenance activities to carry out. However, for urban road networks the implementation of a PMS can be complicated due to the many functional and operational problems. This paper presents a prototype low-cost inertial sensor-based system for monitoring the pavement conditions in urban road networks. Starting by the measurements of the vertical accelerations collected in a vehicle riding on a rough pavement,the frequency-weighted vertical acceleration 푎௪௭ was calculated according to ISO 2631 standard. This parameter can be adopted as a Key Performance Indicator (KPI) by relating the road roughness to the human whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure on the road user. Some field tests were carried out identifying urban roads in an Italian city with different levels of pavement deterioration. Measurements to evaluate the pavement deterioration were performed using traditional visual inspections and the proposed sensor embedded in a test vehicle (run at different speeds) in order to identify a relationship between these indices in terms of performance classe

    Oscillation thresholds via the novel MBR method with application to oncolytic virotherapy

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    Oncolytic virotherapy is a therapy for the treatment of malignant tumours. In some undesirable cases, the injection of viral particles can lead to stationary oscillations, thus preventing the full destruction of the tumour mass. We investigate the oscillation thresholds in a model for the dynamics of a tumour under treatment with an oncolytic virus. To this aim, we employ the minimum bifurcation roots (MBR) method, which is a novel approach to determine the existence and location of Hopf bifurcations. The application to oncolytic virotherapy confirms how this approach may be more manageable than classical methods based on the Routh–Hurwitz criterion. In particular, the MBR method allows to explicitly identify a range of values in which the oscillation thresholds fall
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