6,702 research outputs found

### SCC: A Service Centered Calculus

We seek for a small set of primitives that might serve as a basis for formalising and programming service oriented applications over global computers. As an outcome of this study we introduce here SCC, a process calculus that features explicit notions of service definition, service invocation and session handling. Our proposal has been influenced by Orc, a programming model for structured orchestration of services, but the SCCâs session handling mechanism allows for the definition of structured interaction protocols, more complex than the basic request-response provided by Orc. We present syntax and operational semantics of SCC and a number of simple but nontrivial programming examples that demonstrate flexibility of the chosen set of primitives. A few encodings are also provided to relate our proposal with existing ones

### Simultaneous follow-up of planetary transits: revised physical properties for the planetary systems HAT-P-16 and WASP-21

Context. By now more than 300 planets transiting their host star have been
found, and much effort is being put into measuring the properties of each
system. Light curves of planetary transits often contain deviations from a
simple transit shape, and it is generally difficult to differentiate between
anomalies of astrophysical nature (e.g. starspots) and correlated noise due to
instrumental or atmospheric effects. Our solution is to observe transit events
simultaneously with two telescopes located at different observatories. Aims.
Using this observational strategy, we look for anomalies in the light curves of
two transiting planetary systems and accurately estimate their physical
parameters. Methods. We present the first photometric follow-up of the
transiting planet HAT-P-16 b, and new photometric observations of WASP-21 b,
obtained simultaneously with two medium-class telescopes located in different
countries, using the telescope defocussing technique. We modeled these and
other published data in order to estimate the physical parameters of the two
planetary systems. Results. The simultaneous observations did not highlight
particular features in the light curves, which is consistent with the low
activity levels of the two stars. For HAT-P-16, we calculated a new ephemeris
and found that the planet is 1.3 \sigma colder and smaller (Rb = 1.190 \pm
0.037 RJup) than the initial estimates, suggesting the presence of a massive
core. Our physical parameters for this system point towards a younger age than
previously thought. The results obtained for WASP-21 reveal lower values for
the mass and the density of the planet (by 1.0 \sigma and 1.4 \sigma
respectively) with respect to those found in the discovery paper, in agreement
with a subsequent study. We found no evidence of any transit timing variations
in either system.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in A&

### Physical properties, starspot activity, orbital obliquity, and transmission spectrum of the Qatar-2 planetary system from multi-colour photometry

We present seventeen high-precision light curves of five transits of the
planet Qatar-2b, obtained from four defocussed 2m-class telescopes. Three of
the transits were observed simultaneously in the SDSS griz passbands using the
seven-beam GROND imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-m telescope. A fourth was observed
simultaneously in Gunn grz using the CAHA 2.2-m telescope with BUSCA, and in r
using the Cassini 1.52-m telescope. Every light curve shows small anomalies due
to the passage of the planetary shadow over a cool spot on the surface of the
host star. We fit the light curves with the prism+gemc model to obtain the
photometric parameters of the system and the position, size and contrast of
each spot. We use these photometric parameters and published spectroscopic
measurements to obtain the physical properties of the system to high precision,
finding a larger radius and lower density for both star and planet than
previously thought. By tracking the change in position of one starspot between
two transit observations we measure the orbital obliquity of Qatar-2 b to be
4.3 \pm 4.5 degree, strongly indicating an alignment of the stellar spin with
the orbit of the planet. We calculate the rotation period and velocity of the
cool host star to be 11.4 \pm 0.5 d and 3.28 \pm 0.13 km/s at a colatitude of
74 degree. We assemble the planet's transmission spectrum over the 386-976 nm
wavelength range and search for variations of the measured radius of Qatar-2 b
as a function of wavelength. Our analysis highlights a possible H2/He Rayleigh
scattering in the blue.Comment: 20 pages, 14 figures, to appear in Monthly Notices of the Royal
Astronomical Societ

### Two-parameter non-linear spacetime perturbations: gauge transformations and gauge invariance

An implicit fundamental assumption in relativistic perturbation theory is
that there exists a parametric family of spacetimes that can be Taylor expanded
around a background. The choice of the latter is crucial to obtain a manageable
theory, so that it is sometime convenient to construct a perturbative formalism
based on two (or more) parameters. The study of perturbations of rotating stars
is a good example: in this case one can treat the stationary axisymmetric star
using a slow rotation approximation (expansion in the angular velocity Omega),
so that the background is spherical. Generic perturbations of the rotating star
(say parametrized by lambda) are then built on top of the axisymmetric
perturbations in Omega. Clearly, any interesting physics requires non-linear
perturbations, as at least terms lambda Omega need to be considered. In this
paper we analyse the gauge dependence of non-linear perturbations depending on
two parameters, derive explicit higher order gauge transformation rules, and
define gauge invariance. The formalism is completely general and can be used in
different applications of general relativity or any other spacetime theory.Comment: 22 pages, 3 figures. Minor changes to match the version appeared in
Classical and Quantum Gravit

### Bigraphical modelling of architectural patterns

Selected for publication in FACS'2011 post-proceedings, to appear in Springer Lecture Notes in Computer ScienceArchery is a language for behavioural modelling of architectural patterns, supporting hierarchical composition and a type discipline. This paper extends Archery to cope with the patterns' structural dimension through a set of (re-)configuration combinators and constraints that all instances of a pattern must obey. Both types and instances of architectural patterns are semantically represented as bigraphical reactive systems and operations upon them as reaction rules. Such a bigraphical semantics provides a rigorous model for Archery patterns and reduces constraint verification in architectures to a type-checking problem.(undefined

### Second Order Perturbations of Flat Dust FLRW Universes with a Cosmological Constant

We summarize recent results concerning the evolution of second order
perturbations in flat dust irrotational FLRW models with $\Lambda\ne 0$. We
show that asymptotically these perturbations tend to constants in time, in
agreement with the cosmic no-hair conjecture. We solve numerically the second
order scalar perturbation equation, and very briefly discuss its all time
behaviour and some possible implications for the structure formation.Comment: 6 pages, 1 figure. to be published in "Proceedings of the 5th
Alexander Friedmann Seminar on Gravitation and Cosmology", Int. Journ. Mod.
Phys. A (2002). Macros: ws-ijmpa.cls, ws-p9-75x6-50.cl

### ISW effect in Unified Dark Matter Scalar Field Cosmologies: an analytical approach

We perform an analytical study of the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect
within the framework of Unified Dark Matter models based on a scalar field
which aim at a unified description of dark energy and dark matter. Computing
the temperature power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies
we are able to isolate those contributions that can potentially lead to strong
deviations from the usual ISW effect occurring in a $\Lambda$CDM universe. This
helps to highlight the crucial role played by the sound speed in the Unified
Dark Matter models. Our treatment is completely general in that all the results
depend only on the speed of sound of the dark component and thus it can be
applied to a variety of unified models, including those which are not described
by a scalar field but relies on a single dark fluid.Comment: 15 pages, LateX file; one comment after Eq.(36) and formula (44)
added in order to underline procedure and main results. Accepted for
publication in JCAP; some typos correcte

### Are braneworlds born isotropic?

It has recently been suggested that an isotropic singularity may be a generic
feature of brane cosmologies, even in the inhomogeneous case. Using the
covariant and gauge-invariant approach we present a detailed analysis of linear
perturbations of the isotropic model ${\cal F}_b$ which is a past attractor in
the phase space of homogeneous Bianchi models on the brane. We find that for
matter with an equation of state parameter $\gamma > 1$, the dimensionless
variables representing generic anisotropic and inhomogeneous perturbations
decay as $t\to 0$, showing that the model ${\cal F}_b$ is asymptotically stable
in the past. We conclude that brane universes are born with isotropy naturally
built-in, contrary to standard cosmology. The observed large-scale homogeneity
and isotropy of the universe can therefore be explained as a consequence of the
initial conditions if the brane-world paradigm represents a description of the
very early universe.Comment: Changed to match published versio

### Weather radar for urban hydrological applications: lessons learnt and research needs identified from 4 pilot catchments in North-West Europe

International audienceThis study investigates the impact of rainfall estimates of different spatial resolutions on the hydraulic outputs of the models of four of the EU RainGain projectâs pilot locations (the Cranbrook catchment (UK), the Herent catchment (Belgium), the MorĂŠe-Sausset catchment (France) and the Kralingen District (The Netherlands)). Two storm events, one convective and one stratiform, measured by a polarimetric X-band radar located in Cabauw (The Netherlands) were selected for analysis. The original radar estimates, at 100 m and 1 min resolutions, were aggregated to a spatial resolution of 1000 m. These estimates were then applied to the high-resolution semi-distributed hydraulic models of the four urban catchments, all of which have similar size (between 5 and 8 km2), but different morphological, hydrological and hydraulic characteristics. When doing so, methodologies for standardising rainfall inputs and making results comparable were implemented. The response of the different catchments to rainfall inputs of varying spatial resolution is analysed in the light of model configuration, catchment and storm characteristics. Rather surprisingly, the results show that for the two events under consideration the spatial resolution (i.e. 100 m vs 1000 m) of rainfall inputs does not have a significant influence on the outputs of urban drainage models. The present study will soon be extended to more storms as well as model structures and resolutions, with the final aim of identifying critical spatial-temporal resolutions for urban catchment modelling in relation to catchment and storm event characteristics

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