62 research outputs found

    Metabolites in fish and humans as a response to different food ingredients : a metabolomics approach

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    The main objective of this thesis was to evaluate metabolomics changes in humans and fish as a response to food/feed consumption. To alleviate the environmental impact of animal production and maximize the use of resources, the valorization of meat by-products might be an attractive alternative. A meat product containing heart and aorta tissue from pork was designed and analyzed for fatty acid and metabolite composition. In comparison with a control of similar qualities, the designed meat product (or test product) showed higher monounsaturated fatty acid and tyramine levels and lower levels of sugars. The test meat product was used in a randomized controlled clinical trial to test for potential health effects in patients showing atherosclerosis symptoms. Patients receiving the test product showed a decrease in blood levels of low-density lipoproteins, total cholesterol, atherogenic index and triacylglycerols. To reduce the impact of animal production on ecosystems, the replacement of feed ingredients by a microbial alternative was realized. In this study, vegetable oils included in the feed of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) were replaced by biomass of the oleaginous yeast (Rhodotorula toruloides). The analysis of the yeast biomass showed safe levels of pollutants and heavy metals. Fish growth and muscle fatty acid profile were similar to the control. A higher liver weight and hepatosomatic index were observed in fish fed including the yeast biomass, albeit no significant difference in liver fat content or in hepatic enzyme activity was observed. Quantification of plasma metabolites revealed higher levels of metabolites involved in energy pathways such as one-carbon metabolism and gluconeogenesis.In conclusion, this thesis showed that metabolomics can be applied to evaluate effects of food/feed at the molecular level in complex systems. It adds knowledge on the effects of meat by-product consumption in the particular case of atherosclerosis symptoms. The fish feed trial showed the possibility of feed modification with a specific yeast

    Transcriptional study reveals a potential leptin-dependent gene regulatory network in zebrafish brain

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    The signal mediated by leptin hormone and its receptor is a major regulator of body weight, food intake and metabolism. In mammals and many teleost fish species, leptin has an anorexigenic role and inhibits food intake by influencing the appetite centres in the hypothalamus. However, the regulatory connections between leptin and downstream genes mediating its appetite-regulating effects are still not fully explored in teleost fish. In this study, we used a loss of function leptin receptor zebrafish mutant and real-time quantitative PCR to assess brain expression patterns of several previously identified anorexigenic genes downstream of leptin signal under different feeding conditions (normal feeding, 7-day fasting, 2 and 6-h refeeding). These downstream factors include members of cart genes, crhb and gnrh2, as well as selected genes co-expressed with them based on a zebrafish co-expression database. Here, we found a potential gene expression network (GRN) comprising the abovementioned genes by a stepwise approach of identifying co-expression modules and predicting their upstream regulators. Among the transcription factors (TFs) predicted as potential upstream regulators of this GRN, we found expression pattern of sp3a to be correlated with transcriptional changes of the downstream gene network. Interestingly, the expression and transcriptional activity of Sp3 orthologous gene in mammals have already been implicated to be under the influence of leptin signal. These findings suggest a potentially conserved regulatory connection between leptin and sp3a, which is predicted to act as a transcriptional driver of a downstream gene network in the zebrafish brain.Peer reviewe

    Structural Analysis of dsRNA Binding to Anti-viral Pattern Recognition Receptors LGP2 and MDA5

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    International audienceRIG-I and MDA5 sense virus-derived short 5'ppp blunt-ended or long dsRNA, respectively, causing interferon production. Non-signaling LGP2 appears to positively and negatively regulate MDA5 and RIG-I signaling, respectively. Co-crystal structures of chicken (ch) LGP2 with dsRNA display a fully or semi-closed conformation depending on the presence or absence of nucleotide. LGP2 caps blunt, 3' or 5' overhang dsRNA ends with 1 bp longer overall footprint than RIG-I. Structures of 1:1 and 2:1 complexes of chMDA5 with short dsRNA reveal head-to-head packing rather than the polar head-to-tail orientation described for long filaments. chLGP2 and chMDA5 make filaments with a similar axial repeat, although less co-operatively for chLGP2. Overall, LGP2 resembles a chimera combining a MDA5-like helicase domain and RIG-I like CTD supporting both stem and end binding. Functionally, RNA binding is required for LGP2-mediated enhancement of MDA5 activation. We propose that LGP2 end-binding may promote nucleation of MDA5 oligomerization on dsRNA

    Oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula toruloides biomass effect on the metabolism of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)

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    Sustainability issues arise when using fish oil and vegetable oils in fish feed production for aquaculture purposes. Microbial production of single cell oil is a potential alternative as a lipid ingredient in the production of fish feed. In this study, we replaced the vegetable oils with the oleaginous yeast R. toruloides biomass in the diet of Arctic char (S. alpinus) and investigated the effects on health and composition. Measurement of fish growth parameters showed a higher liver weight and hepatosomatic index in the experimental group of fish fed partly with yeast biomass compared to a control group fed a diet with vegetable oils. No significant differences in the lipid content of muscle and liver tissues were found. The fatty acid profiles in the muscle of both fish groups were similar while the experimental fish group had a higher amount of monounsaturated fatty acids in the liver. Histology of livers showed no significant difference in the number of lipid droplets. The size of hepatic lipid droplets seemed to be related to liver fat content. Quantification of metabolites in the liver revealed no differences between the fish groups while plasma metabolites involved in energy pathways such as alanine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, creatinine, serine, betaine, and choline were significantly higher in the experimental fish group

    Increase in Tomato Locule Number Is Controlled by Two Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Located

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    In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit, the number of locules (cavities containing seeds that are derived from carpels) varies from two to up to 10 or more. Locule number affects fruit shape and size and is controlled by several quantitative trait loci(QTLs). The large majority of the phenotypic variation is explained by two of these QTLs, fasciated (fas) and locule number (lc), that interact epistatically with one another. FAS has been cloned, and mutations in the gene are described as key factors leading to the increase in fruit size in modern varieties. Here, we report the map-based cloning of lc. The lc QTL includes a 1,600-bp region that is located 1,080 bp from the 3# end of WUSCHEL, which encodes a homeodomain protein that regulates stem cell fate in plants. The molecular evolution of lc showed a reduction of diversity in cultivated accessions with the exception of two single-nucleotide polymorphisms. These two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were shown to be responsible for the increase in locule number. An evolutionary model of locule number is proposed herein, suggesting that the fas mutation appeared after the mutation in the lc locus to confer the extreme high-locule-number phenotype

    Oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula toruloides biomass effect on the metabolism of Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus)

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    Sustainability issues arise when using fish oil and vegetable oils in fish feed production for aquaculture purposes. Microbial production of single cell oil is a potential alternative as a lipid ingredient in the production of fish feed. In this study, we replaced the vegetable oils with the oleaginous yeast R. toruloides biomass in the diet of Arctic char (S. alpinus) and investigated the effects on health and composition. Measurement of fish growth parameters showed a higher liver weight and hepatosomatic index in the experimental group of fish fed partly with yeast biomass compared to a control group fed a diet with vegetable oils. No significant differences in the lipid content of muscle and liver tissues were found. The fatty acid profiles in the muscle of both fish groups were similar while the experimental fish group had a higher amount of monounsaturated fatty acids in the liver. Histology of livers showed no significant difference in the number of lipid droplets. The size of hepatic lipid droplets seemed to be related to liver fat content. Quantification of metabolites in the liver revealed no differences between the fish groups while plasma metabolites involved in energy pathways such as alanine, 3-hydroxybutyrate, creatinine, serine, betaine, and choline were significantly higher in the experimental fish group

    Discovery and mapping of a new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism and simple sequence repeat panel for large-scale genetic studies and breeding of Theobroma cacao L.

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    Theobroma cacao is an economically important tree of several tropical countries. Its genetic improvement is essential to provide protection against major diseases and improve chocolate quality. We discovered and mapped new expressed sequence tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (EST-SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and constructed a high-density genetic map. By screening 149 650 ESTs, 5246 SNPs were detected in silico, of which 1536 corresponded to genes with a putative function, while 851 had a clear polymorphic pattern across a collection of genetic resources. In addition, 409 new SSR markers were detected on the Criollo genome. Lastly, 681 new EST-SNPs and 163 new SSRs were added to the pre-existing 418 co-dominant markers to construct a large consensus genetic map. This high-density map and the set of new genetic markers identified in this study are a milestone in cocoa genomics and for marker-assisted breeding. The data are available at http://tropgenedb.cirad.fr

    Deciphering the genome structure and paleohistory of _Theobroma cacao_

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    We sequenced and assembled the genome of _Theobroma cacao_, an economically important tropical fruit tree crop that is the source of chocolate. The assembly corresponds to 76% of the estimated genome size and contains almost all previously described genes, with 82% of them anchored on the 10 _T. cacao_ chromosomes. Analysis of this sequence information highlighted specific expansion of some gene families during evolution, for example flavonoid-related genes. It also provides a major source of candidate genes for _T. cacao_ disease resistance and quality improvement. Based on the inferred paleohistory of the T. cacao genome, we propose an evolutionary scenario whereby the ten _T. cacao_ chromosomes were shaped from an ancestor through eleven chromosome fusions. The _T. cacao_ genome can be considered as a simple living relic of higher plant evolution
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