443 research outputs found

    The effect of deuteriation on the emission lifetime of inorganic compounds

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    The application of deuteriation of both ligands and solvents on the photophysical properties of transition metal complexes in solution and glassy matrices is reviewed. The reduction in amplitude and frequency of vibrational modes due to deuterium's increased mass, relative to hydrogen, has a significant effect on non-radiative deactivation processes, which can occur through both intra- and inter-molecular vibrational coupling. The effect of deuteriation on excited state lifetimes has allowed for its application in probing the nature of excited state decay processes. The effects of isotopic exchange on vibrational spectroscopies such as resonance Raman and low temperature high-resolution emission spectroscopies are also addressed briefly

    Probing ground and excited state properties of ruthenium (II) and osmium (II) polypyridyl complexes

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    The area of ruthenium(H) and osmium(H) polypyridyl chemistry has been the subject of intense investigation over the last half century. In chapter 1, topics relevant to the studies presented in this thesis are introduced. These areas include the basic principles behind the ground and excited state properties of Ru(II) and Os(II) polypyridyl complexes, complexes incorporating the 1,2,4-triazole moiety and the application of deuteriation to inorganic photophysics. Chapter 2 details experimental and basic synthetic procedures employed in the studies presented in later chapters. A limited discussion of practical aspects of both synthetic procedures and physical measurements is included, in particular where major difficulties were encountered and where improvements to standard procedures were made. A central theme to this thesis is the application of deuteriation as a spectroscopic probe. In order to fully exploit its potential fully, a general and systematic approach to the deuteriation of polypyridyl type ligands is required. In chapter 3 a range of isotopomers of heteroaromatic compounds containing pyrazyl-, pyridyl-, 1,2,4-triazole-, thienyl-, methyl-, and phenyl- moieties, are reported. The application of deuteriation in inorganic chemistry as a spectroscopic probe both in simplification of NMR and Raman spectra and as a probe into the excited state structure of heteroleptic complexes is the focus of chapter 4. Deuteriation is employed extensively to probe the excited state structure of several series of Ru(II) and Os(II) polypyridyl complexes. In particular the effect of deuteriation on emission lifetime and ground and excited state resonance Raman spectra is investigated. In chapter 5, the phenomena of temperature dependent dual luminescence observed for the mononuclear complex [Ru(bpy)2 (pztr)]+ forms the basis of a wider investigation of related complexes in an effort to gain more insight into the nature of the phenomenon. In addition some fundamental studies into the picosecond excited state processes of [Ru(bpy)3]2+ are presented. In these studies deuteriation shows itself as a powerful tool in effecting small but important perturbations. In Chapter 6 the separation, characterisation and photophysical properties of the stereoisomers of mono- and bi-nuclear Ru(II) polypyridyl complexes is examined. In particular the importance of chirality both in terms of solvent and in complex in determining the circular dichroism, ]H NMR spectroscopy and photophysical properties is investigated. In chapters 7 and 8, attention is turned to binuclear systems incorporating 1,2,4-triazole moieties. The effects of variations in the bridging ligand in these systems (e.g., distance and spacer groups, pyrazine vs. triazole etc.) are examined. Deuteriation is employed in some of these systems as a tool in assessing the localisation of the lowest emissive excited state on particular moieties of the complexes

    Autonomous propulsion of carbon nanotubes powered by a multienzyme ensemble

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    Covalent attachment of the enzymes glucose oxidase and catalase to carbon nanotubes enables the tandem catalytic conversion of glucose and H2O2 formed to power autonomous movement of the nanotubes.

    Modulation of internuclear communication in multinuclear Ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes

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    The syntheses and characterisation of a series of mononuclear and dinuclear ruthenium polypyridyl complexes based on the bridging ligands 1,3-bis-[5-(2-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]benzene, 1,4-bis-[5-(2-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]benzene, 2,5-bis-[5-(2-pyridyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]thiophene, 2,5-bis-[5-pyrazinyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl]thiophene are reported. Electrochemical studies indicate that in these systems, the ground state interaction is critically dependent on the nature of the bridging ligand and its protonation state, with strong and weak interactions being observed for thiophene- and phenylene-bridged complexes, respectively

    In situ CCVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes within a commercial ceramic foam

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    Consolidated nanocomposite foams containing a large quantity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within millimetre-sized pores are prepared for the first time. A commercial ceramic foam is impregnated by a 60 g L21 slurry of a (Mg(12x)(Co0.75Mo0.25)xO solid solution (x = 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2) powder in ethanol. Three successive impregnations led to deposits several tens of mm thick, with a good coverage of the commercial-ceramic pore walls but without closing the pores. The materials were submitted to a CCVD treatment in H2–CH4 atmosphere in order to synthesise the CNTs. When using attrition-milled powders, the carbon is mostly in the form of nanofibres or disordered carbon rather than CNTs. Using non-milled powders produces a less-compact deposit of catalytic material with a higher adherence to the walls of the ceramic foam. After CCVD, the carbon is mostly in the form of high-quality CNTs, as when using powder beds, their quantity being 2.5 times higher. The so-obtained consolidated nanocomposite materials show a multi-scale pore structuration

    cis Donor Influence on O-O Bond Lability in Iron(III) Hydroperoxo Complexes:Oxidation Catalysis and Ligand Transformation

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    The Fe-III/Fe-II redox potentials for [Fe(tpen)](2+/3+), [Fe-(tpena)](+/2+), and [Fe (tpenO)](+/2+) (N-R-N,N',N'-tris (2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine, where R = CH2C6H4N, CH2COO-, CH2CH2O-, respectively) span 470 mV with the oxidation potentials following the order [Fe-II(tpenO)](+) (MeOH) &lt;[Fe-II(tpena)](+) (MeCN) &lt;[Fe-II(tpen)](2+) (MeCN). In their +3 oxidation states the complexes react with 1 equiv of H2O2 to give the purple [Fe-III(OOH)(HL)](n+) (n = 2 for L = tpena, tpenO; n = 3 for L = tpen). A pyridine arm is decoordinated in these complexes, furnishing a second coordination sphere base which is protonated at ambient pH. The lifetimes of these transient species depend on how readily the substrate (sometimes the solvent) is oxidized and reflect the trend in both the O-O bond lability and oxidizing potency of the putative iron-based oxidant derived from the iron(III) peroxides. In methanol solution, [Fe-III(tpenO)](2+) and [Fe-III(tpena)](2+) exist in their Fe(III) states and hence the formation of [Fe-III(OOH)(Htpena)](2+) and [Fe-III(OOH)(HtpenO)(2+) is instantaneous. This is in contrast to the short lag time that occurs before adduct formation between [Fe-II(tpen)](2+) and H2O2 due to the requisite prior oxidation of the solution-state iron(II) complex to its iron(III) state. Stabilization of the +3 iron oxidation state in the resting state catalysts affords complexes that activate H2O2 more readily with the consequence of higher yields in the oxidation of the C-H bonds using H2O2 as terminal oxidant. The presence of a cis monodentate carboxylato donor increases the rate of oxidation by hydrogen atom transfer in comparison to the systems with an alkoxo or pyridine in this position. Competing with substrate oxidation is the oxidative modification of the alkoxido group in [Fe-III(tpenO)](2+), converting it to a carboxylato group in the presence of H2O2: in effect, transforming tpenO to tpena.</p

    Impact of binding to the multidrug resistance regulator protein LmrR on the photo-physics and -chemistry of photosensitizers

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    Light activated photosensitizers generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) that interfere with cellular components and can induce cell death, e.g., in photodynamic therapy (PDT). The effect of cellular components and especially proteins on the photochemistry and photophysics of the sensitizers is a key aspect in drug design and the correlating cellular response with the generation of specific ROS species. Here, we show the complex range of effects of binding of photosensitizer to a multidrug resistance protein, produced by bacteria, on the formers reactivity. We show that recruitment of drug like molecules by LmrR (Lactococcal multidrug resistance Regulator) modifies their photophysical properties and their capacity to induce oxidative stress especially in 1O2 generation, including rose bengal (RB), protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), bodipy, eosin Y (EY), riboflavin (RBF), and rhodamine 6G (Rh6G). The range of neutral and charged dyes with different exited redox potentials, are broadly representative of the dyes used in PDT.</p

    Switching Pathways for Reversible Ligand Photodissociation in Ru(II) Polypyridyl Complexes with Steric Effects

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    The effect of a minor difference in ligand structure is shown to have a large effect on the photochemical pathways followed by two ruthenium(II) polypyridyl based complexes [Ru(CH3CN) (LL)](2+), 1 and 2, where LL is MeN4Py (1,1-di(pyridin-2-yl)-N,N-bis (pyridin-2-yl-methyl) ethan-1-amine) or N4Py (1,1-di (pyri din-2-yl)-N,N-bis (pyridin-2-yl-m ethyl) methanamine), respectively. In our earlier report we demonstrated near completely reversible two-way photochromism of 1, in which a pyridyl ring dissociated on irradiation with visible light to form the thermally stable 1P, [Ru(CH3CN)(2)(MeN4Py)](2+). Complex 1 was recovered upon irradiation in the near-UV. Here, we show that the methyl group in the ligand backbone is critical to the reversibility by impeding the dissociation of one of the two sets of pyridyl rings. Irradiation of 2, which does not bear the methyl group, with visible light results in formation of two thermally stable isomers 2a and 2b, which are characterized by UV-vis absorption, FTIR, H-1 NMR spectroscopy, ESI mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. In contrast to 1P, in both 2a and 2b, a different pyridyl moiety is dissociated. Whereas UV irradiation returns 2a to its original state (2), the overall reversibility is limited by the relative stability of 2b. The changes to the structure of 2 made possible by the increased freedom for all four pyridyl moieties to dissociate allows access to coordination modes that are not accessible thermally opening opportunities toward new catalysts for oxidation chemistry, photochromism and photoswitching.</p

    Mapping the Excited‐State Potential Energy Surface of a Photomolecular Motor

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    A detailed understanding of the operation and efficiency of unidirectional photomolecular rotary motors is essential for their effective exploitation in molecular nanomachines. Unidirectional motion relies on light‐driven conversion from a stable (1 a) to a metastable (1 b) conformation, which then relaxes through a thermally driven helix inversion in the ground state. The excited‐state surface has thus far only been experimentally characterised for 1 a. Here we probe the metastable, 1 b, excited state, utilising ultrafast transient absorption and femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy. These reveal that the “dark” excited‐state intermediate between 1 a and 1 b has a different lifetime and structure depending on the initial ground‐state conformation excited. This suggests that the reaction coordinate connecting 1 a to 1 b differs to that for the reverse photochemical process. The result is contrasted with earlier calculations
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