237 research outputs found

    Complex Challenges, Comprehensive Responses - Linking Security and Development: 11th International Summer School 2007

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    "The link between international security and development constitutes a nexus that is only beginning to be understood and addressed by the international community and by regional security and development actors. During the International Summer School, participants and renowned speakers examine the complexity of contemporary development and security challenges, such as transnational warfare, terrorism, poor governance and state failure, migration and resource conflicts, as well as the transformation of traditional security and development concepts and policies (human security paradigm etc.). New interfaces between security and development (e.g. the concept of Security Sector Reform) and the need for an integrated approach to address global challenges are discussed. In this light, efforts and strategies of global actors like the EU, US, NATO, UN and OSCE as well as sensitivities and prospects for cooperation are assessed. Case studies on Africa, the Middle East, Asia and the Balkans provide regional insights to the topic." (author's abstract

    10th International Summer School "Global Challenges, Global Actors - Sharing Responsibility for a Secure World in the 21st Century": Berlin, 9-22 July 2006 ; final report

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    "Security challenges in the 21st century have trans-border effects and can no longer be dealt with by nation states alone. To address these challenges a wide spectrum of actors, including international and regional organizations, national and local institutions, as well as NGOs and civil society need to engage in a multilateral and concerted approach. During the International Summer School, participants and renowned speakers examine contemporary security challenges, such as terrorism and homeland security, state failure and democratization, energy security, demography and migration. In this light, prioritites and strategies of global actors like the EU, US, China, NATO, UN and OSCE, but also NGOs and private actors are assessed." (author's abstract

    Europäische Streitkräfte im Treibsand: ein zweifelhafter "europäischer" Einsatz im Tschad und in der Zentralafrikanischen Republik

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    "Die EUFOR Tschad/ZAR ist in ihrer gegenw√§rtigen Konzeption ein zweifelhafter Einsatz mit geringen Erfolgsaussichten. Schlecht geplante Eins√§tze mit unklaren Zielen dienen weder der Sichtbarkeit noch der St√§rkung der EU als internationalem Krisenmanager. Eine strategische Herangehensweise, in der die zu erreichenden Ziele mit den entsprechenden Kapazit√§ten in Einklang stehen, ist bei der Planung zuk√ľnftiger Eins√§tze oberstes Gebot. Langwierige und peinliche Ad-hoc-L√∂sungen, basierend auf Interessen einzelner Mitgliedstaaten, m√ľssen vermieden werden. Mit zweifelhaften Eins√§tzen wie der EUFOR Tschad/ ZAR schadet die EU ihrer Glaubw√ľrdigkeit und riskiert mittel- bis langfristig die Unterminierung der bisher breiten √∂ffentlichen Zustimmung zur ESVP. Die Begrenztheit ihrer milit√§rischen Kapazit√§ten sowie die unzureichende Definition wirklich gemeinsamer Interessen ihrer Mitgliedstaaten machen eine ehrliche Debatte √ľber die Art der Eins√§tze, welche die EU leisten kann und will, √ľberf√§llig. Ohne eine solche Debatte gef√§hrdet die Union nicht nur ihren eigenen Ruf, sondern auch die Beziehungen zu anderen Akteuren wie UN, NATO und USA." (Autorenreferat

    Phenotypische Charakterisierung der Spinocerebellären Ataxie Typ 17 (SCA 17)

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    Die spinocerebell√§re Ataxie Typ 17 (SCA17) ist eine autosomal dominant vererbte Form der heredit√§ren cerebell√§ren Ataxien mit progredienter Degeneration in Kleinhirn, Hirnstamm, R√ľckenmark und Kortex. √Ątiologisch liegt der SCA17 eine pathologische CAG Repeat Expansion im TATA-Binding-Protein-Gen (TBP-Gen), welches f√ľr den Transkriptionsfaktor TBP codiert, zugrunde. Diese CAG Elongation zeigt eine negative Korrelation mit dem Erstmanifestationsalter. Klinisch imponiert die SCA17 sehr heterogen mit cerebell√§ren Dysfunktionen (Ataxie, Dysarthrie, Nystagmus) und Demenz, h√§ufig jedoch auch mit extrapyramidalen Bewegungsst√∂rungen und psychiatrischer Symptomatik

    Was n√ľtzt Seamless Learning als neues didaktisches Konzept in der Politikwissenschaft?

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    Der Werkstattbericht zeigt am Beispiel eines politikwissenschaftlichen Online-Seminars, welchen Beitrag Seamless Learning (SL) leisten kann, Studierende zu kontinuierlicher, aktiver Mitarbeit anzuregen und sie bei der Verkn√ľpfung von theoretischen Inhalten mit empirischen Beispielen zu unterst√ľtzen. Die Erfahrungen zeigen, dass SL die problemorientierte Wahrnehmung der Studierenden zwar sch√§rfen kann, der erfolgreiche Einsatz des Konzepts jedoch an hohe Voraussetzungen gebunden ist. 12.08.2016 | Nils Arne Brockmann & Kathrin Loer (Hagen

    Dermal Phospho-Alpha-Synuclein Deposition in Patients With Parkinson's Disease and Mutation of the Glucocerebrosidase Gene

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    Heterozygous mutations in the glucocerebrosidase gene (GBA1) represent the most common genetic risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD) and are histopathologically associated with a widespread load of alpha-synuclein in the brain. Therefore, PD patients with GBA1 mutations are a cohort of high interest for clinical trials on disease-modifying therapies targeting alpha-synuclein. There is evidence that detection of phospho-alpha-synuclein (p-syn) in dermal nerve fibers might be a biomarker for the histopathological identification of PD patients even at premotor or very early stages of disease. It is so far unknown whether dermal p-syn deposition can also be found in PD patients with GBA1 mutations and may serve as a biomarker for PD in these patients. Skin biopsies of 10 PD patients with different GBA1 mutations (six N370S, three E326K, one L444P) were analyzed by double-immunofluorescence labeling with anti-p-syn and anti-protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5, axonal marker) to detect intraaxonal p-syn deposition. Four biopsy sites (distal, proximal leg, paravertebral Th10, and C7) per patient were studied. P-syn was found in six patients (three N370S, three E326K). P-syn deposition was mainly detected in autonomic nerve fibers, but also in somatosensory fibers and was not restricted to a certain GBA1 mutation. In summary, dermal p-syn in PD patients with GBA1 mutations seems to offer a similar distribution and frequency as observed in patients without a known mutation. Skin biopsy may be suitable to study p-syn deposition in these patients or even to identify premotor patients with GBA1 mutations

    GBA-associated PD: chances and obstacles for targeted treatment strategies.

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    Given the clear role of GBA in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) and its impact on phenotypical characteristics, this review provides an overview of the current knowledge of GBA-associated PD with a special focus on clinical trajectories and the underlying pathological mechanisms. Importantly, differences and characteristics based on mutation severity are recognized, and current as well as potential future treatment options are discussed. These findings will inform future strategies for patient stratification and cohort enrichment as well as suitable outcome measures when designing clinical trials

    Gut Microbiome Signatures of Risk and Prodromal Markers of Parkinson Disease

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    Objective Alterations of the gut microbiome in Parkinson disease (PD) have been repeatedly demonstrated. However, little is known about whether such alterations precede disease onset and how they relate to risk and prodromal markers of PD. We investigated associations of these features with gut microbiome composition. Methods Established risk and prodromal markers of PD as well as factors related to diet/lifestyle, bowel function, and medication were studied in relation to bacterial alpha-/beta-diversity, enterotypes, and differential abundance in stool samples of 666 elderly TREND (Tubingen Evaluation of Risk Factors for Early Detection of Neurodegeneration) study participants. Results Among risk and prodromal markers, physical activity, occupational solvent exposure, and constipation showed associations with alpha-diversity. Physical activity, sex, constipation, possible rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and smoking were associated with beta-diversity. Subthreshold parkinsonism and physical activity showed an interaction effect. Among other factors, age and urate-lowering medication were associated with alpha- and beta-diversity. Physical inactivity and constipation were highest in individuals with theFirmicutes-enriched enterotype. Constipation was lowest and subthreshold parkinsonism least frequent in individuals with thePrevotella-enriched enterotype. Differentially abundant taxa were linked to constipation, physical activity, possible RBD, smoking, and subthreshold parkinsonism. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity, olfactory loss, depression, orthostatic hypotension, urinary/erectile dysfunction, PD family history, and the prodromal PD probability showed no significant microbiome associations. Interpretation Several risk and prodromal markers of PD are associated with gut microbiome composition. However, the impact of the gut microbiome on PD risk and potential microbiome-dependent subtypes in the prodrome of PD need further investigation based on prospective clinical and (multi)omics data in incident PD cases. ANN NEUROL 2020Peer reviewe
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