2,499 research outputs found

    Editorial: Celebrating Microbial Diversity: The Many Cell Cycles of Eukaryotic Microbes.

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    Editorial on the Research Topic Celebrating Microbial Diversity: The Many Cell Cycles of Eukaryotic MicrobesCM: ERC research grant ‘Plasmocycle’. ZL: NIH R01 grant AI101437. MB: Swiss National Science Foundation 31003A_179321

    Space-mapping techniques applied to the optimization of a safety isolating transformer

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    Space-mapping optimization techniques allow to allign low-fidelity and high-fidelity models in order to reduce the computational time and increase the accuracy of the solution. The main idea is to build an approximate model from the difference of response between both models. Therefore the optimization process is computed on the surrogate model. In this paper, some recent approaches of space-mapping techniques such as agressive-space-mapping, output-mapping and manifold-mapping algorithms are applied to optimize a safety insulating transformer. The electric, magnetic and thermal phenomena of the device are modeled by an analytical model and a 3D finite element model. It is considered as a benchmark for multi-level optimization to test different algorithms

    How to account for irrigation withdrawals in a watershed model

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    In agricultural areas, the downstream flow can be highly influenced by human activities during low-flow periods, especially during dam releases and irrigation withdrawals. Irrigation is indeed the major use of freshwater in the world. This study aims at precisely taking these factors into account in a watershed model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+) agro-hydrological model was chosen for its capacity to model crop dynamics and management. Two different crop models were compared in terms of their ability to estimate water needs and actual irrigation. The first crop model is based on air temperature as the main determining factor for growth, whereas the second relies on high-resolution data from the Sentinel-2 satellite to monitor plant growth. Both are applied at the plot scale in a watershed of 800 km2 that is characterized by irrigation withdrawals. Results show that including remote sensing data leads to more realistic modeled emergence dates for summer crops. However, both approaches have proven to be able to reproduce the evolution of daily irrigation withdrawals throughout the year. As a result, both approaches allowed us to simulate the downstream flow with a good daily accuracy, especially during low-flow periods.</p

    Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS): International Standards for Validation

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    An international expert consensus committee recently recommended a brief battery of tests for cognitive evaluation in multiple sclerosis. The Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS) battery includes tests of mental processing speed and memory. Recognizing that resources for validation will vary internationally, the committee identified validation priorities, to facilitate international acceptance of BICAMS. Practical matters pertaining to implementation across different languages and countries were discussed. Five steps to achieve optimal psychometric validation were proposed. In Step 1, test stimuli should be standardized for the target culture or language under consideration. In Step 2, examiner instructions must be standardized and translated, including all information from manuals necessary for administration and interpretation. In Step 3, samples of at least 65 healthy persons should be studied for normalization, matched to patients on demographics such as age, gender and education. The objective of Step 4 is test-retest reliability, which can be investigated in a small sample of MS and/or healthy volunteers over 1–3 weeks. Finally, in Step 5, criterion validity should be established by comparing MS and healthy controls. At this time, preliminary studies are underway in a number of countries as we move forward with this international assessment tool for cognition in MS

    A Plasmodium membrane receptor platform integrates cues for egress and invasion in blood forms and activation of transmission stages

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    Critical events in the life cycle of malaria-causing parasites depend on cyclic guanosine monophosphate homeostasis by guanylyl cyclases (GCs) and phosphodiesterases, including merozoite egress or invasion of erythrocytes and gametocyte activation. These processes rely on a single GCalpha, but in the absence of known signaling receptors, how this pathway integrates distinct triggers is unknown. We show that temperature-dependent epistatic interactions between phosphodiesterases counterbalance GCalpha basal activity preventing gametocyte activation before mosquito blood feed. GCalpha interacts with two multipass membrane cofactors in schizonts and gametocytes: UGO (unique GC organizer) and SLF (signaling linking factor). While SLF regulates GCalpha basal activity, UGO is essential for GCalpha up-regulation in response to natural signals inducing merozoite egress and gametocyte activation. This work identifies a GC membrane receptor platform that senses signals triggering processes specific to an intracellular parasitic lifestyle, including host cell egress and invasion to ensure intraerythrocytic amplification and transmission to mosquitoes
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