13,428 research outputs found

    Preliminary investigation of ablative material response to high-intensity CO2 laser radiation

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    Performance tests for ablative materials subjected to high intensity carbon dioxide laser radiatio

    Graphite and ablative material response to CO2 laser, carbon-arc, and xenon-arc radiation

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    The behavior was investigated of graphite and several charring ablators in a variety of high-radiative heat-flux environments. A commercial-grade graphite and nine state-of-the-art charring ablators were subjected to various radiative environments produced by a CO2 laser and a carbon arc. Graphite was also tested in xenon-arc radiation. Heat-flux levels ranged from 10 to 47 MW/sq m. Tests were conducted in air, nitrogen, helium, and a CO2-N2 mixture which simulated the Venus atmosphere. The experimental results were compared with theoretical results obtained with a one-dimensional charring-ablator analysis and a two-dimensional subliming-ablator analysis. Neither the graphite nor the charring ablators showed significant differences in appearance or microstructure after testing in the different radiative environments. The performance of phenolic nylon and graphite was predicted satisfactorily with existing analyses and published material property data. Good agreement between experimental and analytical results was obtained by using sublimation parameters from a chemical nonequilibrium analysis of graphite sublimation. Some charring ablators performed reasonably well and could withstand radiative fluxes of the level encountered in certain planetary entries. Other materials showed excessive surface recession and/or large amounts of cracking and spalling, and appear to be unsuitable for severe radiative environments

    The Influence of Religion and Ethnonationalism on Public Attitudes towards Amnesty : Northern Ireland as a Case Study

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    The 2011 Northern Ireland Social and Political Attitudes Survey was collected by John D. Brewer and Bernadette C. Hayes and was funded by the Leverhulme Trust under the Compromise After Conflict Programme (Grant no. F/00/152/AK).Peer reviewedPostprin

    The distributional effect of the 2008 Pre-Budget Report

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    The Pre-Budget Report given by the Chancellor on 24th November 2008 contained a number of changes to the tax and benefit system to come into effect at various points over the next three years. This briefing note expands on the information provided at a briefing given by IFS researchers on the day after the Pre-Budget Report1. It gives details of the changes to taxes, benefits and tax credits directly affecting households, and the total distributional impact of measures announced in PBR 2008 together with pre-announced changes, by income and expenditure decile and household type, at three points in time – January 2009, April 2009 and April 2011. It also discusses what PBR 2008 does to our impression of all tax and benefit changes under this Government. Finally, it discusses what PBR 08 did for child poverty in 2010/11 and the likely effects of the income tax changes for those earning more than £100,000 a year

    Statistical modeling of space shuttle environmental data

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    Statistical models which use a class of bivariate gamma distribution are examined. Topics discussed include: (1) the ratio of positively correlated gamma varieties; (2) a method to determine if unequal shape parameters are necessary in bivariate gamma distribution; (3) differential equations for modal location of a family of bivariate gamma distribution; and (4) analysis of some wind gust data using the analytical results developed for modeling application

    Interface control and mechanical property improvements in silicon carbide/titanium composites

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    Several composite systems made of titanium matrix reinforced with silicon carbide fiber were investigated to obtain a better understanding of composite-degradation mechanisms and to develop techniques to minimize loss of mechanical properties during fabrication and in service. Emphasis was on interface control by fiber or matrix coatings. X-ray diffraction studies on planar samples showed that the formation of titanium silicides was greatly inhibited by the presence of aluminum or Ti3A1 layers at the fiber-matrix interface, with the Ti3A1 being more effective in reducing the reactions. Fiber studies showed that coating the fiber with a 1-micron-thick layer of aluminum improved the as-fabricated strength of a stoichiometric SiC fiber and reduced the fiber degradation during exposure to composite-fabrication conditions. Applying an interfacial barrier by coating the matrix foils instead of the fibers was found to be an effective method for improving composite strength. Reducing the fabrication temperature also resulted in significant improvements in composite strengths. Good-quality, well-consolidated composites were fabricated at temperatures well below those currently used for SiC-Ti composite fabrication

    Hypersonic cruise aircraft propulsion integration study, volume 1

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    A hypersonic cruise transport conceptual design is described. The integration of the subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic propulsion systems with the aerodynamic design of the airframe is emphasized. An evaluation of various configurations of aircraft and propulsion integration concepts, and selection and refinement of a final design are given. This configuration was used as a baseline to compare two propulsion concepts - one using a fixed geometry dual combustion mode scramjet and the other a variable geometry ramjet engine. Both concepts used turbojet engines for takeoff, landing and acceleration to supersonic speed

    Correction factors for on-line microprobe analysis of multielement alloy systems

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    An on-line correction technique was developed for the conversion of electron probe X-ray intensities into concentrations of emitting elements. This technique consisted of off-line calculation and representation of binary interaction data which were read into an on-line minicomputer to calculate variable correction coefficients. These coefficients were used to correct the X-ray data without significantly increasing computer core requirements. The binary interaction data were obtained by running Colby's MAGIC 4 program in the reverse mode. The data for each binary interaction were represented by polynomial coefficients obtained by least-squares fitting a third-order polynomial. Polynomial coefficients were generated for most of the common binary interactions at different accelerating potentials and are included. Results are presented for the analyses of several alloy standards to demonstrate the applicability of this correction procedure
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