1,658 research outputs found

    Energy transitions, sub-national government and regime flexibility : how has devolution in the United Kingdom affected renewable energy development?

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    We acknowledge the support of the Economic and Social Research Council for funding the research on which this paper was based (Grant Number RES-062-23-2526).Peer reviewedPostprin

    A semi-mechanistic model of hydrocyclones - developed form industrial data and inputs from CFD.

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    The flow behavior in hydrocyclones is extremely complex, leading the designers to rely on empirical equations for predicting cyclone performance. A number of classifying cyclone models have been developed and used in mineral comminution circuit simulators in the past. The problem with these empirical cyclone models is that they cannot be used outside the range of conditions under which they were developed. A semi-mechanistic hydrocyclone model is developed using the dimensionless approach based on both the fluid mechanics concepts from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations and the wide range of industrial cyclone performance data. The improved model consist a set of equations for the water split to underflow (R), reduced cut-size (d), throughput (Q) and sharpness of the separation (α). The model for R, d, Q gives a very good fit to the data. The alpha model shows reasonable correlation for the cyclone design and operating conditions. Additional data sets were used to validate the new hydrocyclone model by comparing the predictions of the model equations with the experimental results

    Rescaling the Governance of Renewable Energy : Lessons from the UK Devolution Experience

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    An earlier version of this paper was presented at the symposium ‘Scale in environmental governance: power reconfiguration, democratic legitimacy and institutional (mis-)fit’, Berlin-Brandenburg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Berlin 7-8 March 2013. We would like to thank the symposium participants, special issue editors and three anonymous referees for their comments and advice.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Examining the diversity of MRCS examiners

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    Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge Gregory Ayre from the Intercollegiate Committee for Basic Surgical Examinations for his support during this project. Funding Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland. Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow and Royal College of Surgeons of England.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Once Daily Valacyclovir for Reducing Viral Shedding in Subjects Newly Diagnosed with Genital Herpes

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    Objective. Genital herpes (GH) recurrences and viral shedding are more frequent in the first year after initial HSV-2 infection. The objective of this study was to provide the first evaluation of valacyclovir 1 g once daily compared to placebo in reducing viral shedding in subjects newly diagnosed with GH. Methods. 70 subjects were randomized to receive valacyclovir 1 g daily or placebo in a crossover design for 60 days with a 7-day washout period. A daily swab of the genital/anal-rectal area was self-collected for HSV-2 detection by PCR. Subjects attended the clinic for routine study visits and GH recurrence visits. Treatment differences were assessed using a nonparametric crossover analysis. Results. 52 subjects had at least one PCR measurement in both treatment periods and comprised the primary efficacy population. Valacyclovir significantly reduced HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.9% versus 13.5% of all days (P < .01), a 78% reduction). Valacyclovir significantly reduced subclinical HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.4% versus 11.0% of all days (P < .01), a 78% reduction). However, 79% of subjects had no GH recurrences while receiving valacyclovir compared to 52% of subjects receiving placebo (P < .01). Conclusion. In this study, the frequency of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding was greater than reported in earlier studies involving subjects with a history of symptomatic genital recurrences. Our study is the first to demonstrate a significant reduction in viral shedding with valacyclovir 1 g daily compared to placebo in a population of subjects newly diagnosed with HSV-2 infection

    Does performance at medical school predict success at the Intercollegiate Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons (MRCS) examination? : A retrospective cohort study

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    Funding Information: Royal College of Surgeons of England, Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland and Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow (award/grant number is not applicable). Acknowledgements: The authors would like to acknowledge Iain Targett at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, for his help with data collection and Gregory Ayre from the Intercollegiate Committee for Basic Surgical Examinations for their support during this project. Our thanks to members of the UKMED Research Group who provided useful feedback on an earlier version of this manuscript, and whose comments helped refine the paper. The authors would also like to acknowledge Daniel Smith for his help with the UKMED database. Data Source: UK Medical Education Database (‘UKMED’). UKMEDP043 extract generated on 25 July 2018. We are grateful to UKMED for the use of these data. However, UKMED bears no responsibility for their analysis or interpretation. The data include information derived from that collected by the Higher Education Statistics Agency Limited (‘HESA’) and provided to the GMC (‘HESA Data’). Source: HESA Student Records 2007/2008 to 2015/2016. Copyright Higher Education Statistics Agency. The Higher Education Statistics Agency makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the HESA Data, cannot accept responsibility for any inferences or conclusions derived by third parties from data or other information supplied by it.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Does performance at the intercollegiate Membership of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons (MRCS) examination vary according to UK medical school and course type? A retrospective cohort study

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    Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge Iain Targett at the Royal College of Surgeons of England, for his help with data collection and John Hines and Gregory Ayre from the Intercollegiate Committee for Basic Surgical Examinations for their support during this project. Our thanks to members of the UKMED Research Group who provided useful feedback on an earlier version of this manuscript, and whose comments helped refine the paper. The authors would also like to acknowledge Daniel Smith for his help with the UKMED database. Data source: UK Medical Education Database ('UKMED'). UKMEDP043 extract generated on 25/07/2018. We are grateful to UKMED for the use of these data. However, UKMED bears no responsibility for their analysis or interpretation the data includes information derived from that collected by the Higher Education Statistics Agency Limited ('HESA') and provided to the GMC ('HESA Data'). Source: HESA Student Records 2002/2003 to 2015/2016. Copyright Higher Education Statistics Agency Limited. The Higher Education Statistics Agency Limited makes no warranty as to the accuracy of the HESA Data, cannot accept responsibility for any inferences or conclusions derived by third parties from data or other Information supplied by it.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Developmental Basis of Pronephric Defects in Xenopus Body Plan Phenotypes

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    AbstractWe have used monoclonal antibodies that recognize the pronephric tubules or pronephric duct to explore the induction of the embryonic kidney in developing Xenopus embryos. Morphogenesis of the pronephros was examined in UV-ventralized and lithium-dorsalized embryos. We find that the pronephric tubules are present in all but the strongest UV-induced phenotypes, but absent from relatively moderate lithium phenotypes. Interestingly the pronephric duct, which develops from the ventroposterior portion of the pronephric anlage, is missing from more of the mild UV phenotypes than are pronephric tubules. The loss of the capacity to form pronephroi in UV-ventralized embryos is caused by the loss of tissues capable of inducing the pronephric mesoderm, as marginal zone explants from ventralized embryos are still competent to respond to pronephric-inductive signals. Explant recombination experiments indicate that the tissue responsible for both the loss of pronephroi in UV-ventralized embryos and the induction of pronephroi during normal development is the anterior somites. The absence of pronephroi in relatively mild lithium phenotypes has a developmental basis different from that of the UV phenotype, as explants from lithium-treated embryos are effective inducers of pronephroi in recombinants with competent mesoderm, even though they themselves do not form pronephroi in isolation. Together these data indicate that dorsal tissues, especially the anterior somites, are responsible for the establishment of the intermediate mesoderm and the induction of the embryonic kidneys and that even mild dorsalization destroys the capacity to form cells competent to receive this signal
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