20 research outputs found

    The psychological contract in apprenticeships and traineeships : differing perceptions

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    As with any contract of employment, the mutual expectations of the employer and the apprentice/trainee are very important. Apprenticeships and traineeships have greater expectations than other employment contracts of employment because of the training component of the contract. This paper reports on some of the findings of a major NCVER-funded national project examining mutual expectations in apprenticeships and traineeships through the concept of the psychological contract. The paper focuses on the differences between employers and apprentices/trainees, in the expectations each party has of the other and in the extent to which the expectations are perceived to have been met.<br /

    The psychological contract in apprenticeships and traineeships : comparing the perceptions of employees and employers

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    This paper compares the perceptions of Australian apprentices/trainees and employers of apprentices/trainees in relation to the psychological contract: the unwritten mutual expectations employers and employees have of each other. A random sample of apprentices and trainees (N = 219) and employers of apprentices and trainees (N = 262) from Victoria and Queensland, Australia completed surveys. Information was collected about perceived employer, employee and training obligations and how well they had been met. Overall it was found that apprentices/trainees and employers rated similar individual employer, employee and training obligations as being the most and least important. Training obligations were perceived by both parties as being the most important obligations overall. Differences between the groups mainly related to perceptions of the extent to which obligations were met, particularly employer obligations. Despite significant differences, the overall mean ratings suggest that the psychological contract is being met well for both parties. Implications of the research for psychological contracts and for apprenticeships/traineeships are discussed.C

    Understanding the psychological contract in apprenticeships and traineeships to improve retention

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    Attrition in apprenticeships and traineeships is an ongoing concern for employers and government alike, with completion standing at around 50% on average. One possible explanation for this high attrition rate that there is mismatch between the respective expectations of apprentices/trainees and employers. This research use the concept of psychological contract, that is, the perceived mutual obligations betweens employers and employees of themselves and each other, to test this explanation

    Credit transfer from VET to higher education: a pathways policy meets a roadblock.

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    Higher education is increasingly available to a wider range of people, not just recent school-leavers with established academic ability. One way of encouraging this trend is to provide credit transfer into higher education (HE) qualifications for people’s prior vocational education and training (VET) studies. However, it is generally recognised that while a range of pathways have been created, the numbers of students involved in such pathways are relatively limited. This paper explores some of the reasons this might be so, using, as a case study, an analysis of a national Australian government policy initiative. The initiative, known as ‘VET FEE-HELP’, involved the introduction of student loans for fees for higher-level VET studies and was designed partly to encourage credit transfer. Availability of loans to students was on the proviso that the course in which the student enrolled had a documented pathway providing credit transfer into a higher education course. This created a climate in which VET providers actively pursued partnerships with higher education. But recently, the credit transfer requirement of the policy has been removed. The paper concludes by discussing the issues for governments in finding appropriate policy levers to increase proportions of students transferring from VET to higher education.C

    What industry wants : Employers' preferences for training

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    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse what retail and hospitality industry employers want from training and trainers. Design/methodology/approach: The research project was undertaken for Service Skills Australia, the Australian Industry Skills Council that oversees formal training for a range of service industries in Australia. The paper utilises data from focus groups and telephone interviews with representatives of the retail and hospitality industries, and telephone interviews with staff of the relevant UK Sector Skills Councils, to provide international benchmarking for the issues raised. Findings: Results showed that, while industry representatives stated that they prioritised industry skills and knowledge above education skills and knowledge, a complex mixture of the two was required, which was generally felt to be lacking. Curriculum for training was also perceived to be deficient, despite Training packages having been developed in consultation with industry. A comparison with the UK interviews with senior staff at the UK Skills Councils for the two industries showed similar issues and suggested some possible ways forward for Australia. Originality/value: The paper provides three major areas where improvement in VET training and trainers would be welcome and gives useful initiatives for improvement in those areas. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited

    How can the expansion of the apprenticeship system in India create conditions for greater equity and social justice?

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    This paper reports on aspects of a recent project carried out for the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Bank, which was designed to feed into the process of updating and expanding India’s apprenticeship system. The apprenticeship system in India is extremely small for the country’s population, even taking into account the high proportion of jobs that are in the informal economy, and is subject to very rigid regulation. Expansion of the system has been seen as vital in order to improve the supply of skills to the rapidly expanding economy, and also to address issues of disparity in labour market participation and equity for certain groups in Indian society. The paper firstly explains how findings about apprenticeship systems from ten other countries, together with analysis of the Indian situation, were used to present options for consideration by the Indian government. It then analyses these options for their social justice and equity implications

    High quality traineeships : Identifying what works

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    This study explores the common features of high-quality traineeships using case studies from the cleaning, child care, construction, retail, finance and insurance, and meat processing areas. The research identifies a range of policy measures that could improve both the practice and image of traineeships. A good practice guide has also been developed to assist in ensuring that all traineeships are of equally high quality

    Towards a model apprenticeship framework: a comparative analysis of national apprenticeship systems.

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    This project was undertaken with funding from the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Bank. It was designed to inform the redevelopment of the Indian apprenticeship system. Government officials wanted to consider features of good practice from around the world. Ten expert international researchers were identified and provided case studies about their own countries’ apprenticeship systems; a cross-case analysis produced a framework for a ‘model apprenticeship system’. Measures of success for apprenticeship systems were also identified
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