43 research outputs found

    Detection of HC3_3N maser emission in NGC253

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    We report the detection of maser emission from the J=4−3J=4-3 transition of HC3_3N at 36.4~GHz towards the nearby starburst galaxy NGC253. This is the first detection of maser emission from this transition in either a Galactic or extragalactic source. The HC3_3N maser emission has a brightness temperature in excess of 2500 K and is offset from the center of the galaxy by approximately 18 arcsec (300 pc), but close to a previously reported class~I methanol maser. Both the HC3_3N and methanol masers appear to arise near the interface between the galactic bar and the central molecular zone, where it is thought that molecular gas is being transported inwards, producing a region of extensive low-velocity shocks.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ Letters, 7 pages, 3 figure

    The first high-resolution observations of 37.7-, 38.3- and 38.5-GHz methanol masers

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    We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to undertake the first high angular resolution observations of 37.7-GHz (7−2−8−1E7_{-2} - 8_{-1}E) methanol masers towards a sample of eleven high-mass star formation regions which host strong 6.7-GHz methanol masers. The 37.7-GHz methanol sites are coincident to within the astrometric uncertainty (0.4 arcseconds) with the 6.7-GHz methanol masers associated with the same star formation region. However, spatial and spectral comparison of the 6.7- and 37.7-GHz maser emission within individual sources shows that the 37.7-GHz masers are less often, or to a lesser degree co-spatial than are the 12.2-GHz and 6.7-GHz masers. We also made sensitive, high angular resolution observations of the 38.3- and 38.5-GHz class II methanol transitions (62−53A−6_{2} - 5_{3}A^{-} and 62−53A+6_{2} - 5_{3}A^{+}, respectively) and the 36.2-GHz (4−1−30E4_{-1} - 3_{0}E) class I methanol transition towards the same sample of eleven sources. The 37.7-, 38.3- and 38.5-GHz methanol masers are unresolved in the current observations, which implies a lower limit on the brightness temperature of the strongest masers of more than 10610^6K. We detected the 38.3-GHz methanol transition towards 7 sources, 5 of which are new detections and detected the 38.5-GHz transition towards 6 sources, 4 of which are new detections. We detected 36.2-GHz class I methanol masers towards all eleven sources, 6 of these are new detections for this transition, of which 4 sources do not have previously reported class I methanol masers from any transition.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS, 34 pages, 20 figure

    Detection of 84-GHz class I methanol maser emission towards NGC 253

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    We have investigated the central region of NGC 253 for the presence of 84.5-GHz (5−1→405_{-1}\rightarrow4_0E) methanol emission using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. We present the second detection of 84.5-GHz class~I methanol maser emission outside the Milky Way. This maser emission is offset from dynamical centre of NGC 253, in a region with previously detected emission from class~I maser transitions (36.2-GHz 4−1→304_{-1}\rightarrow3_0E and 44.1-GHz 70→617_{0}\rightarrow6_1A+^{+} methanol lines) . The emission features a narrow linewidth (∼\sim12 km s−1^{-1}) with a luminosity approximately 5 orders of magnitude higher than typical Galactic sources. We determine an integrated line intensity ratio of 1.2±0.41.2\pm0.4 between the 36.2 GHz and 84.5-GHz class I methanol maser emission, which is similar to the ratio observed towards Galactic sources. The three methanol maser transitions observed toward NGC 253 each show a different distribution, suggesting differing physical conditions between the maser sites and that observations of additional class~I methanol transitions will facilitate investigations of the maser pumping regime.Comment: Accepted into ApJL 12 October 2018. 10 pages, 3 Figures and 2 Table

    Detection of a methanol megamaser in a major-merger galaxy

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    We have detected emission from both the 4_{-1}-3_{0} E (36.2~GHz) class I and 7_{-2}-8_{-1} E (37.7~GHz) class II methanol transitions towards the centre of the closest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. The emission in both the methanol transitions show narrow spectral features and have luminosities approximately 8 orders of magnitude stronger than that observed from typical class I methanol masers observed in Galactic star formation regions. The emission is also orders of magnitude stronger than the expected intensity of thermal emission from these transitions and based on these findings we suggest that the emission from the two transitions are masers. These observations provides the first detection of a methanol megamaser in the 36.2 and 37.7 GHz transitions and represents only the second detection of a methanol megamaser, following the recent report of an 84 GHz methanol megamaser in NGC1068. We find the methanol megamasers are significantly offset from the nuclear region and arise towards regions where there is Ha emission, suggesting that it is associated with starburst activity. The high degree of correlation between the spatial distribution of the 36.2 GHz methanol and X-ray plume emission suggests that the production of strong extragalactic class I methanol masers is related to galactic outflow driven shocks and perhaps cosmic rays. In contrast to OH and H2O megamasers which originate close to the nucleus, methanol megamasers provide a new probe of feedback (e.g. outflows) processes on larger-scales and of star formation beyond the circumnuclear starburst regions of active galaxies.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ

    The Carina Nebula and Gum 31 molecular complex: II. The distribution of the atomic gas revealed in unprecedented detail

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    We report high spatial resolution observations of the HI 21cm line in the Carina Nebula and the Gum 31 region obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The observations covered ∼\sim 12 deg2^2 centred on l=287.5deg⁡,b=−1deg⁡l= 287.5\deg,b = -1\deg, achieving an angular resolution of ∼\sim 35 arcseconds. The HI map revealed complex filamentary structures across a wide range of velocities. Several "bubbles" are clearly identified in the Carina Nebula Complex, produced by the impact of the massive star clusters located in this region. An HI absorption profile obtained towards the strong extragalactic radio source PMN J1032--5917 showed the distribution of the cold component of the atomic gas along the Galactic disk, with the Sagittarius-Carina and Perseus spiral arms clearly distinguishable. Preliminary calculations of the optical depth and spin temperatures of the cold atomic gas show that the HI line is opaque (τ≳\tau \gtrsim 2) at several velocities in the Sagittarius-Carina spiral arm. The spin temperature is ∼100\sim100 K in the regions with the highest optical depth, although this value might be lower for the saturated components. The atomic mass budget of Gum 31 is ∼35%\sim35 \% of the total gas mass. HI self absorption features have molecular counterparts and good spatial correlation with the regions of cold dust as traced by the infrared maps. We suggest that in Gum 31 regions of cold temperature and high density are where the atomic to molecular gas phase transition is likely to be occurring.Comment: 20 pages, 1 table, 16 Figures, Accepted for Publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Journa