270 research outputs found

    Development of the nanobody display technology to target lentiviral vectors to antigen-presenting cells

    Get PDF
    Lentiviral vectors (LVs) provide unique opportunities for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies, as they transduce a variety of cells in situ, including antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Engineering LVs to specifically transduce APCs is required to promote their translation towards the clinic. We report on the Nanobody (Nb) display technology to target LVs to dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. This innovative approach exploits the budding mechanism of LVs to incorporate an APC-specific Nb and a binding-defective, fusion-competent form of VSV. G in the viral envelope. In addition to production of high titer LVs, we demonstrated selective, Nb-dependent transduction of mouse DCs and macrophages both in vitro and in situ. Moreover, this strategy was translated to a human model in which selective transduction of in vitro generated or lymph node (LN)-derived DCs and macrophages, was demonstrated. In conclusion, the Nb display technology is an attractive approach to generate LVs targeted to specific cell types

    Duplications of the critical Rubinstein-Taybi deletion region on chromosome 16p13.3 cause a novel recognisable syndrome

    Get PDF
    Background The introduction of molecular karyotyping technologies facilitated the identification of specific genetic disorders associated with imbalances of certain genomic regions. A detailed phenotypic delineation of interstitial 16p13.3 duplications is hampered by the scarcity of such patients. Objectives To delineate the phenotypic spectrum associated with interstitial 16p13.3 duplications, and perform a genotype-phenotype analysis. Results The present report describes the genotypic and phenotypic delineation of nine submicroscopic interstitial 16p13.3 duplications. The critically duplicated region encompasses a single gene, CREBBP, which is mutated or deleted in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. In 10 out of the 12 hitherto described probands, the duplication arose de novo. Conclusions Interstitial 16p13.3 duplications have a recognizable phenotype, characterized by normal to moderately retarded mental development, normal growth, mild arthrogryposis, frequently small and proximally implanted thumbs and characteristic facial features. Occasionally, developmental defects of the heart, genitalia, palate or the eyes are observed. The frequent de novo occurrence of 16p13.3 duplications demonstrates the reduced reproductive fitness associated with this genotype. Inheritance of the duplication from a clinically normal parent in two cases indicates that the associated phenotype is incompletely penetrant

    Phenotype-specific effect of chromosome 1q21.1 rearrangements and GJA5 duplications in 2436 congenital heart disease patients and 6760 controls

    Get PDF
    Recurrent rearrangements of chromosome 1q21.1 that occur via non-allelic homologous recombination have been associated with variable phenotypes exhibiting incomplete penetrance, including congenital heart disease (CHD). However, the gene or genes within the ∼1 Mb critical region responsible for each of the associated phenotypes remains unknown. We examined the 1q21.1 locus in 948 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), 1488 patients with other forms of CHD and 6760 ethnically matched controls using single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping arrays (Illumina 660W and Affymetrix 6.0) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. We found that duplication of 1q21.1 was more common in cases of TOF than in controls [odds ratio (OR) 30.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9-107.6); P = 2.2 × 10−7], but deletion was not. In contrast, deletion of 1q21.1 was more common in cases of non-TOF CHD than in controls [OR 5.5 (95% CI 1.4-22.0); P = 0.04] while duplication was not. We also detected rare (n = 3) 100-200 kb duplications within the critical region of 1q21.1 in cases of TOF. These small duplications encompassed a single gene in common, GJA5, and were enriched in cases of TOF in comparison to controls [OR = 10.7 (95% CI 1.8-64.3), P = 0.01]. These findings show that duplication and deletion at chromosome 1q21.1 exhibit a degree of phenotypic specificity in CHD, and implicate GJA5 as the gene responsible for the CHD phenotypes observed with copy number imbalances at this locu

    Phenotype-specific effect of chromosome 1q21.1 rearrangements and GJA5 duplications in 2436 congenital heart disease patients and 6760 controls

    Get PDF
    Recurrent rearrangements of chromosome 1q21.1 that occur via non-allelic homologous recombination have been associated with variable phenotypes exhibiting incomplete penetrance, including congenital heart disease (CHD). However, the gene or genes within the ∼1 Mb critical region responsible for each of the associated phenotypes remains unknown. We examined the 1q21.1 locus in 948 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), 1488 patients with other forms of CHD and 6760 ethnically matched controls using single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping arrays (Illumina 660W and Affymetrix 6.0) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. We found that duplication of 1q21.1 was more common in cases of TOF than in controls [odds ratio (OR) 30.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9–107.6); P = 2.2 × 10−7], but deletion was not. In contrast, deletion of 1q21.1 was more common in cases of non-TOF CHD than in controls [OR 5.5 (95% CI 1.4–22.0); P = 0.04] while duplication was not. We also detected rare (n = 3) 100–200 kb duplications within the critical region of 1q21.1 in cases of TOF. These small duplications encompassed a single gene in common, GJA5, and were enriched in cases of TOF in comparison to controls [OR = 10.7 (95% CI 1.8–64.3), P = 0.01]. These findings show that duplication and deletion at chromosome 1q21.1 exhibit a degree of phenotypic specificity in CHD, and implicate GJA5 as the gene responsible for the CHD phenotypes observed with copy number imbalances at this locus

    Genome-wide association study identifies loci on 12q24 and 13q32 associated with Tetralogy of Fallot

    Get PDF
    We conducted a genome-wide association study to search for risk alleles associated with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), using a northern European discovery set of 835 cases and 5159 controls. A region on chromosome 12q24 was associated (P = 1.4 × 10−7) and replicated convincingly (P = 3.9 × 10−5) in 798 cases and 2931 controls [per allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.27 in replication cohort, P = 7.7 × 10−11 in combined populations]. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the glypican 5 gene on chromosome 13q32 were also associated (P = 1.7 × 10−7) and replicated convincingly (P = 1.2 × 10−5) in 789 cases and 2927 controls (per allele OR = 1.31 in replication cohort, P = 3.03 × 10−11 in combined populations). Four additional regions on chromosomes 10, 15 and 16 showed suggestive association accompanied by nominal replication. This study, the first genome-wide association study of a congenital heart malformation phenotype, provides evidence that common genetic variation influences the risk of TO

    Overt Cleft Palate Phenotype and TBX1 Genotype Correlations in Velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge/22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Patients

    Get PDF
    Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome, with an estimated incidence of 1/2,000 – 1/4,000 live births. Approximately 9–11% of patients with this disorder have an overt cleft palate (CP), but the genetic factors responsible for CP in the 22q11DS subset are unknown. The TBX1 gene, a member of the T-box transcription factor gene family, lies within the 22q11.2 region that is hemizygous in patients with 22q11DS. Inactivation of one allele of Tbx1 in the mouse does not result in CP, but inactivation of both alleles does. Based on these data, we hypothesized that DNA variants in the remaining allele of TBX1 may confer risk to CP in patients with 22q11DS. To test the hypothesis, we evaluated TBX1 exon sequencing (n = 360) and genotyping data (n = 737) with respect to presence (n = 54) or absence (n = 683) of CP in patients with 22q11DS. Two upstream SNPs (rs4819835 and rs5748410) showed individual evidence for association but they were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Associations were not identified between DNA variants and haplotypes in 22q11DS patients with CP. Overall, this study indicates that common DNA variants in TBX1 may be nominally causative for CP in patients with 22q11DS. This raises the possibility that genes elsewhere on the remaining allele of 22q11.2 or in the genome could be relevant
    corecore