490 research outputs found

    Dispersal of Neophilaenus campestris, a vector of Xylella fastidiosa, from olive groves to over-summering hosts

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    [EN] Neophilaenus campestris is one of the spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopoidea) able to transmit Xylella fastidiosa to olive trees. Considering its vector ability and the wide distribution of this species in Spain, N.¬†campestris should be considered a serious threat to key crops such as olive, almonds and grapevines. Migration and dispersal abilities of insect vectors have profound implications in the spread of vector-borne diseases. Thus, knowledge on the dispersal ability of N.¬†campestris is essential to model, predict and limit the spread of the diseases caused by X.¬†fastidiosa. A mass-mark-recapture technique was developed to track between-field movements of N.¬†campestris during its late spring migration from the ground cover grasses within olive groves to sheltered areas dominated by pine trees. The fluorescent dust used for marking did not affect the survival nor the flying ability of N.¬†campestris. Spittlebug adults captured in olive groves during late spring were dusted with fluorescent colours and released in different locations. Six recapture samplings were performed 23¬Ņ42¬†days after release in 12 different sites located within a maximum distance of 2.8¬†km from the release point. Results indicated that N.¬†campestris was able to disperse a maximum distance of 2,47¬†m in 35¬†days. Furthermore, flight mill studies showed that N.¬†campestris was able to fly long distances, reaching 1.4¬†km in an 82-min single flight. Altogether, our findings suggest that eradication measures are of limited value because vectors are able to disperse rapidly over distances much longer than expected.Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Grant/Award Number: AGL2017-89604--R and PRE2018-083307; Comunidad de Madrid, Grant/Award Number: FP19-XYLELLALago, C.; Morente, M.; De Las Heras-Bravo, D.; Mart√≠-Campoy, A.; Rodr√≠guez-Ballester, F.; Plaza, M.; Moreno, A.... (2021). Dispersal of Neophilaenus campestris, a vector of Xylella fastidiosa, from olive groves to over-summering hosts. Journal of Applied Entomology. 145(7):648-659. https://doi.org/10.1111/jen.12888S648659145

    Glucose-Modulated Mitochondria Adaptation in Tumor Cells: A Focus on ATP Synthase and Inhibitor Factor 1

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    Warburg‚Äôs hypothesis has been challenged by a number of studies showing that oxidative phosphorylation is repressed in some tumors, rather than being inactive per se. Thus, treatments able to shift energy metabolism by activating mitochondrial pathways have been suggested as an intriguing basis for the optimization of antitumor strategies. In this study, HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were cultivated with different metabolic substrates under conditions mimicking ‚Äúpositive‚ÄĚ (activation/biogenesis) or ‚Äúnegative‚ÄĚ (silencing) mitochondrial adaptation. In addition to the expected up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose deprivation caused an increase in phosphorylating respiration and a rise in the expression levels of the ATP synthase ő≤ subunit and Inhibitor Factor 1 (IF1). Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, led to a markedly decreased level of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-őĪ suggesting down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, although no change in mitochondrial mass and no impairment of phosphorylating respiration were observed. Moreover, a reduction in mitochondrial networking and in ATP synthase dimer stability was produced. No effect on ő≤-ATP synthase expression was elicited. Notably, hyperglycemia caused an increase in IF1 expression levels, but it did not alter the amount of IF1 associated with ATP synthase. These results point to a new role of IF1 in relation to high glucose utilization by tumor cells, in addition to its well known effect upon mitochondrial ATP synthase regulation

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer risk by pathological subtype (MCC-Spain)

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    Epidemiologic evidence on the association between vitamin D and breast cancer is still inconclusive. This study analyzes the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and breast cancer risk by pathologic subtype, stage at diagnosis and specific breast cancer risk factors. We conducted a population-based multicase-control study where 546 histologically-confirmed breast cancer cases and 558 population controls, frequently matched by geographic area, age and body mass index, were recruited in 12 Spanish provinces (MCC-Spain). Information was collected by a questionnaire and plasma 25(OH)D was measured by solid-phase extraction on-line coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic and multinomial mixed regression models. We found a clear protective effect between 25(OH)D levels and breast cancer risk, with a significant dose-response trend (OR per 10?nmol/L?=?0.88; 95%CI?=?0.82-0.94). While no differences were observed between pre and postmenopausal women, stage at diagnosis, or across strata of the main breast cancer risk factors, the protection was more pronounced for triple negative tumors (OR per 10?nmol/L?=?0.64; p-heterogeneity?=?0.038). Similar results were observed when only cases sampled in the first month after diagnosis were considered. The protective effect of vitamin D on breast cancer risk may be subtype specific, being stronger for more aggressive tumors, which provides a new approach to prevent this disease.The study was funded by Carlos III Institute of Health grants (PI12/00488, PI12/00265, PI12/00715, PI12/01270, PI09/00773 and PI08/1770), by the Spanish Ministry of Health (EC11-273), by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (IJCI-2014-20900) and by Consejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (PI-0571-2009) competitive calls including peer review for scientific quality. Additional funding was provided by the Spanish Federation of Breast Cancer Patients (FECMA: EPY 1169-10), the Association of Women with Breast Cancer from Elche (AMACMEC: EPY 1394/15), the Marqués de Valdecilla foundation (grant API 10/09), and by Acción Transversal del Cancer, approved by the Spanish Ministry Council on October 11, 2007. None of the funders played any role in conducting research or writing the paper. This article presents independent research. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the Carlos III Institute of Health

    Use of an interactomics pipeline to assess the potential of new antivirals against SARS-CoV-2

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    (Póster 80) Background: In late 2019 SARS-CoV-2 infection appeared in China, becoming a pandemic in 2020. The scientific community reacted rapidly, characterizing the viral genome and its encoded proteins, aiming at interfering with viral spreading with vaccines and antivirals. The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike (S) protein plays a key role in cell entry of the virus. It interacts with the cellular receptor for SARS-CoV-2, the membrane-bound human Angiotensin Converting Ectoenzyme 2 (ACE2). With the goal of monitoring interference with this interaction by potential antiviral drugs, we have set up at the Institute for Biomedicine of Valencia (IBV-CSIC) an interactomics pipeline targeting the initial step of viral entry. Methods: For the production part of the pipeline (pure RBD/Spike variants and soluble ACE2), see parallel poster. These proteins allowed monitoring of the RBD/Spike-ACE2 interaction in presence or absence of potential inhibitors. Thermal shift assays (thermofluor) were used for initial detection of compound binding at different ligand/protein ratios and media conditions (pH, buffers, chaotropic agents). Next, binding affinity and on/off kinetics were characterized using Biolayer interferometry (BLI), Surface plasmon resonance (SPR), Microscale Thermophoresis (MST) and/or Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). For protein-protein interactions, we mostly used BLI or SPR, whereas for proteinsmall compound analysis MST was generally best. Protein aggregation-dissociation was monitored by size exclusion chromatography with multiangle light scattering (SEC-MALS). Results: Candidates proven by thermal shift assays to bind to RBD/spike protein without affecting the integrity of these proteins were subjected to quantitative affinity measurements. We successfully demonstrated that BLI, SPR and MST can be used to follow the interactions between SARS-CoV- 2 proteins and the putative drug candidates, as well as to monitor the interference with Spike-Ace2 binding of potential drug candidates. While BLI and SPR displayed reproducible results in the measurement of protein-protein interaction (applied to soluble ACE2 used as a decoy), they were less suitable for measuring the binding of small molecules. The fact that most small compounds were only soluble in organic solvents made difficult to obtain a low signal/noise while using BLI, necessary for the assessment of the binding. We overcame that problem by using MST. After dilution of the compounds to the final experimental concentrations, the technique could detect a significant binding signal enough to calculate binding parameters. MST also allowed to measure the degree of interference that each compound was having on RBD/Spike-ACE2 interaction. The pipeline has been customized and validated with compounds of very different nature provided by different groups belonging to the PTI and other external laboratories, as well as with different Ace2 decoys designed at the IBV. Conclusions: The interactomics platform at the IBV has been used to successfully develop two different antiviral approaches in order to fight COVID-19. It has allowed technical specialization of the staff as well as the development, in a very short period of time, of two ambitious projects. We have demonstrated that we can perform interactomic characterization for challenging projects as well as provide information about binding of antivirals to potential new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern

    Alimentación y salud. Una experiencia de aprendizaje e innovación para la comunidad universitaria UCM a través de la Agenda 2030

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    Los desequilibrios pol√≠ticos, econ√≥micos y sociales que presenta Colombia y la Regi√≥n de Antioquia han derivado en altas tasas de inseguridad alimentaria. Este hecho, junto al elevado consumo de alimentos ultraprocesados en detrimento de la alimentaci√≥n tradicional, est√° afectando gravemente la salud de la poblaci√≥n. A todo ello hay que a√Īadir el impacto del cambio clim√°tico y los eventos derivados extremos que comprometen la producci√≥n y distribuci√≥n de alimentos. A trav√©s de cinco webinars, el p√ļblico asistente conocer√° de primera mano la importancia de la Cooperaci√≥n Internacional al Desarrollo y la Agenda 20-30 como pretexto para afrontar la problem√°tica de la inseguridad alimentaria en Antioquia, fen√≥meno que, pese a haberse hecho m√°s evidente en los √ļltimos a√Īos, permanece casi invisible por la mayor√≠a de la poblaci√≥n espa√Īola. Asimismo, se har√° especial hincapi√© en las pol√≠ticas llevadas a cabo por Colombia para mejorar la alimentaci√≥n, sin olvidar las consecuencias que est√°n teniendo el cambio clim√°tico, los conflictos armados, los estragos generados por la pandemia por COVID-19 o la geopol√≠tica mundial sobre la situaci√≥n nutricional en la regi√≥n colombiana

    Role of age and comorbidities in mortality of patients with infective endocarditis

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    [Purpose]: The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of patients with IE in three groups of age and to assess the ability of age and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) to predict mortality. [Methods]: Prospective cohort study of all patients with IE included in the GAMES Spanish database between 2008 and 2015.Patients were stratified into three age groups:<65‚ÄĮyears,65 to 80‚ÄĮyears,and‚ÄĮ‚Č•‚ÄĮ80‚ÄĮyears.The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was calculated to quantify the diagnostic accuracy of the CCI to predict mortality risk. [Results]: A total of 3120 patients with IE (1327‚ÄĮ<‚ÄĮ65‚ÄĮyears;1291 65-80‚ÄĮyears;502‚ÄĮ‚Č•‚ÄĮ80‚ÄĮyears) were enrolled.Fever and heart failure were the most common presentations of IE, with no differences among age groups.Patients ‚Č•80‚ÄĮyears who underwent surgery were significantly lower compared with other age groups (14.3%,65‚ÄĮyears; 20.5%,65-79‚ÄĮyears; 31.3%,‚Č•80‚ÄĮyears). In-hospital mortality was lower in the <65-year group (20.3%,<65‚ÄĮyears;30.1%,65-79‚ÄĮyears;34.7%,‚Č•80‚ÄĮyears;p‚ÄĮ<‚ÄĮ0.001) as well as 1-year mortality (3.2%, <65‚ÄĮyears; 5.5%, 65-80‚ÄĮyears;7.6%,‚Č•80‚ÄĮyears; p‚ÄĮ=‚ÄĮ0.003).Independent predictors of mortality were age‚ÄĮ‚Č•‚ÄĮ80‚ÄĮyears (hazard ratio [HR]:2.78;95% confidence interval [CI]:2.32‚Äď3.34), CCI‚ÄĮ‚Č•‚ÄĮ3 (HR:1.62; 95% CI:1.39‚Äď1.88),and non-performed surgery (HR:1.64;95% CI:11.16‚Äď1.58).When the three age groups were compared,the AUROC curve for CCI was significantly larger for patients aged <65‚ÄĮyears(p‚ÄĮ<‚ÄĮ0.001) for both in-hospital and 1-year mortality. [Conclusion]: There were no differences in the clinical presentation of IE between the groups. Age‚ÄĮ‚Č•‚ÄĮ80‚ÄĮyears, high comorbidity (measured by CCI),and non-performance of surgery were independent predictors of mortality in patients with IE.CCI could help to identify those patients with IE and surgical indication who present a lower risk of in-hospital and 1-year mortality after surgery, especially in the <65-year group

    CIBERER : Spanish national network for research on rare diseases: A highly productive collaborative initiative

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    Altres ajuts: Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII); Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación.CIBER (Center for Biomedical Network Research; Centro de Investigación Biomédica En Red) is a public national consortium created in 2006 under the umbrella of the Spanish National Institute of Health Carlos III (ISCIII). This innovative research structure comprises 11 different specific areas dedicated to the main public health priorities in the National Health System. CIBERER, the thematic area of CIBER focused on rare diseases (RDs) currently consists of 75 research groups belonging to universities, research centers, and hospitals of the entire country. CIBERER's mission is to be a center prioritizing and favoring collaboration and cooperation between biomedical and clinical research groups, with special emphasis on the aspects of genetic, molecular, biochemical, and cellular research of RDs. This research is the basis for providing new tools for the diagnosis and therapy of low-prevalence diseases, in line with the International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) objectives, thus favoring translational research between the scientific environment of the laboratory and the clinical setting of health centers. In this article, we intend to review CIBERER's 15-year journey and summarize the main results obtained in terms of internationalization, scientific production, contributions toward the discovery of new therapies and novel genes associated to diseases, cooperation with patients' associations and many other topics related to RD research

    ¬ŅQu√© queda de m√≠?

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    Este libro es una reclamacioŐĀn a quienes hemos sido, somos o seremos docentes. A quienes no hemos respetado a las personas que se han puesto junto a nosotros y nosotras, confiando su bien maŐĀs preciado: la libertad. Estas paŐĀginas denuncian cada vez que convertimos una visioŐĀn en la visioŐĀn, una emocioŐĀn en la emocioŐĀn, un saber en el saber, un comportamiento en el comportamiento. Es un grito contra la imposicioŐĀn, la normalizacioŐĀn, la neutralizacioŐĀn y la universalizacioŐĀn de una perspectiva particular. Una pugna contra cada proceso que no se ha conectado con las vidas de los aprendices. Un texto colaborativo realizado por alumnado de EducacioŐĀn y Cambio Social en el Grado en EducacioŐĀn Infantil de la Universidad de MaŐĀlaga y coordinado por Ignacio CalderoŐĀn Almendros

    TFG 2014/2015

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    Amb aquesta publicaci√≥, EINA, Centre universitari de Disseny i Art adscrit a la Universitat Aut√≤noma de Barcelona, d√≥na a con√®ixer el recull dels Treballs de Fi de Grau presentats durant el curs 2014-2015. Voldr√≠em que un recull com aquest don√©s una idea m√©s precisa de la tasca que es realitza a EINA per tal de formar nous dissenyadors amb capacitat de respondre professionalment i intel¬∑lectualment a les necessitats i exig√®ncies de la nostra societat. El treball formatiu s‚Äôorienta a oferir resultats que responguin tant a par√†metres de rigor acad√®mic i capacitat d‚Äôan√†lisi del context com a l‚Äôexperimentaci√≥ i la creaci√≥ de nous llenguatges, tot fomentant el potencial innovador del disseny.Con esta publicaci√≥n, EINA, Centro universitario de dise√Īo y arte adscrito a la Universidad Aut√≥noma de Barcelona, da a conocer la recopilaci√≥n de los Trabajos de Fin de Grado presentados durante el curso 2014-2015. Querr√≠amos que una recopilaci√≥n como √©sta diera una idea m√°s precisa del trabajo que se realiza en EINA para formar nuevos dise√Īadores con capacidad de responder profesional e intelectualmente a las necesidades y exigencias de nuestra sociedad. El trabajo formativo se orienta a ofrecer resultados que respondan tanto a par√°metros de rigor acad√©mico y capacidad de an√°lisis, como a la experimentaci√≥n y la creaci√≥n de nuevos lenguajes, al tiempo que se fomenta el potencial innovador del dise√Īo.With this publication, EINA, University School of Design and Art, affiliated to the Autonomous University of Barcelona, brings to the public eye the Final Degree Projects presented during the 2014-2015 academic year. Our hope is that this volume might offer a more precise idea of the task performed by EINA in training new designers, able to speak both professionally and intellectually to the needs and demands of our society. The educational task is oriented towards results that might respond to the parameters of academic rigour and the capacity for contextual analysis, as well as to considerations of experimentation and the creation of new languages, all the while reinforcing design‚Äôs innovative potential
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