26,681 research outputs found

### Theory of Type-II Superconductors with Finite London Penetration Depth

Previous continuum theory of type-II superconductors of various shapes with
and without vortex pinning in an applied magnetic field and with transport
current, is generalized to account for a finite London penetration depth
lambda. This extension is particularly important at low inductions B, where the
transition to the Meissner state is now described correctly, and for films with
thickness comparable to or smaller than lambda. The finite width of the surface
layer with screening currents and the correct dc and ac responses in various
geometries follow naturally from an equation of motion for the current density
in which the integral kernel now accounts for finite lambda. New geometries
considered here are thick and thin strips with applied current, and `washers',
i.e. thin film squares with a slot and central hole as used for SQUIDs.Comment: 14 pages, including 15 high-resolution figure

### Deep Extragalactic X-ray Surveys

Deep surveys of the cosmic X-ray background are reviewed in the context of
observational progress enabled by the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the X-ray
Multi-Mirror Mission-Newton. The sources found by deep surveys are described
along with their redshift and luminosity distributions, and the effectiveness
of such surveys at selecting active galactic nuclei (AGN) is assessed. Some key
results from deep surveys are highlighted including (1) measurements of AGN
evolution and the growth of supermassive black holes, (2) constraints on the
demography and physics of high-redshift AGN, (3) the X-ray AGN content of
infrared and submillimeter galaxies, and (4) X-ray emission from distant
starburst and normal galaxies. We also describe some outstanding problems and
future prospects for deep extragalactic X-ray surveys.Comment: 32 pages; Annu. Rev. Astron. Astrophys., Volume 43 (2005); updated to
match accepted versio

### Unsolvability Cores in Classification Problems

Classification problems have been introduced by M. Ziegler as a
generalization of promise problems. In this paper we are concerned with
solvability and unsolvability questions with respect to a given set or language
family, especially with cores of unsolvability. We generalize the results about
unsolvability cores in promise problems to classification problems. Our main
results are a characterization of unsolvability cores via cohesiveness and
existence theorems for such cores in unsolvable classification problems. In
contrast to promise problems we have to strengthen the conditions to assert the
existence of such cores. In general unsolvable classification problems with
more than two components exist, which possess no cores, even if the set family
under consideration satisfies the assumptions which are necessary to prove the
existence of cores in unsolvable promise problems. But, if one of the
components is fixed we can use the results on unsolvability cores in promise
problems, to assert the existence of such cores in general. In this case we
speak of conditional classification problems and conditional cores. The
existence of conditional cores can be related to complexity cores. Using this
connection we can prove for language families, that conditional cores with
recursive components exist, provided that this family admits an uniform
solution for the word problem

### D-string on near horizon geometries and infinite conformal symmetry

We show that the symmetries of effective D-string actions in constant dilaton
backgrounds are directly related to homothetic motions of the background
metric. In presence of such motions, there are infinitely many nonlinearly
realized rigid symmetries forming a loop (or loop like) algebra. Near horizon
(AdS) D3 and D1+D5 backgrounds are discussed in detail and shown to provide 2d
interacting field theories with infinite conformal symmetry.Comment: 5 pages, revtex, no figures; symmetry transformations for BI action
added, coupling of D-string to RR 2-form in D1-D5 background corrected; final
version, to appear in Phys. Rev. Let

### The theory of the reentrant effect in susceptibility of cylindrical mesoscopic samples

A theory has been developed to explain the anomalous behavior of the magnetic
susceptibility of a normal metal-superconductor ($NS$) structure in weak
magnetic fields at millikelvin temperatures. The effect was discovered
experimentally by A.C. Mota et al \cite{10}. In cylindrical superconducting
samples covered with a thin normal pure metal layer, the susceptibility
exhibited a reentrant effect: it started to increase unexpectedly when the
temperature lowered below 100 mK. The effect was observed in mesoscopic $NS$
structures when the $N$ and $S$ metals were in good electric contact. The
theory proposed is essentially based on the properties of the Andreev levels in
the normal metal. When the magnetic field (or temperature) changes, each of the
Andreev levels coincides from time to time with the chemical potential of the
metal. As a result, the state of the $NS$ structure experiences strong
degeneracy, and the quasiparticle density of states exhibits resonance spikes.
This generates a large paramagnetic contribution to the susceptibility, which
adds up to the diamagnetic contribution thus leading to the reentrant effect.
The explanation proposed was obtained within the model of free electrons. The
theory provides a good description for experimental results [10]

### Seiberg-Witten maps and anomalies in noncommutative Yang-Mills theories

A BRST-cohomological analysis of Seiberg-Witten maps and results on gauge
anomalies in noncommutative Yang-Mills theories with general gauge groups are
reviewed.Comment: 9 pages, talk at 9th Adriatic Meeting, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 4-14 Sept.
200

### Non-Quadratic Gauge Fixing and Global Gauge Invariance in the Effective Action

The possibility of having a gauge fixing term in the effective Lagrangian
that is not a quadratic expression has been explored in spin-two theories so as
to have a propagator that is both traceless and transverse. We first show how
this same approach can be used in spontaneously broken gauge theories as an
alternate to the 't Hooft gauge fixing which avoids terms quadratic in the
scalar fields. This "non-quadratic" gauge fixing in the effective action
results in there being two complex Fermionic and one real Bosonic ghost fields.
A global gauge invariance involving a Fermionic gauge parameter, analogous to
the usual BRST invariance, is present in this effective action.Comment: 4 pages, revtex4 (submitted to Phys. Rev. D

### The information content of a new observable: the case of the nuclear neutron skin

We address two questions pertaining to the uniqueness and usefulness of a new
observable: (i) Considering the current theoretical knowledge, what novel
information does new measurement bring in? (ii) How can new data reduce
uncertainties of current theoretical models? We illustrate these points by
studying the radius of the neutron distribution of a heavy nucleus, a quantity
related to the equation of state for neutron matter that determines properties
of nuclei and neutron stars. By systematically varying parameters of two
theoretical models and studying the resulting confidence ellipsoid, we quantify
the relationships between the neutron skin and various properties of finite
nuclei and infinite nuclear matter. Using the covariance analysis, we identify
observables and pseudo-observables that correlate, and do not correlate, with
the neutron skin. By adding the information on the neutron radius to the pool
of observables determining the energy functional, we show how precise
experimental determination of the neutron radius in $^{208}$Pb would reduce
theoretical uncertainties on the neutron matter equation of state.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figure

### Anomaly candidates and invariants of D=4, N=1 supergravity theories

All anomaly candidates and the form of the most general invariant local
action are given for old and new minimal supergravity, including the cases
where additional Yang--Mills and chiral matter multiplets are present.
Furthermore nonminimal supergravity is discussed. In this case local
supersymmetry itself may be anomalous and some of the corresponding anomaly
candidates are given explicitly. The results are obtained by solving the
descent equations which contain the consistency equation satisfied by
integrands of anomalies and invariant actions.Comment: 19 pages, LaTex, NIKHEF-H 93-12, ITP-UH 07/9

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