15 research outputs found

    Diurom e tebuconazol no Brasil:: Comercialização e ocorrência em águas

    Get PDF
    Pesticides are microcontaminants used in agriculture to control pests and weeds, which can contaminate water sources and cause damage to health and environment. Among these are diuron and tebuconazole, pesticides that are authorized to be used in crops of economic relevance in Brazil, such as soybeans, corn and, sugarcane. In this sense, the aim of this study was to carry out a literature review on the occurrence of diuron and tebuconazole in Brazilian waters and also evaluate the commercialization of these compounds in Brazilian states over the last few years. Diuron and tebuconazole were widely marketed in Brazil between 2009 and 2020, with the Southeast, Midwest and, South regions standing out. They have the potential for water contamination, as evidenced by the occurrence data reported in the literature, where for diuron the values ranged from 0.0032 őľg/L to 140 őľg/L and for tebuconazole from 0.003 őľg/L to 261.8 őľg/L in surface waters. For both, only one quantified data in surface water reported in the literature was above the MAV established by the water potability ordinance. The study also highlights the need for further studies on these compounds in Brazilian waters, especially in places close to agricultural areas, since the data reported in literature review cover a small number of municipalities.Os agrot√≥xicos s√£o microcontaminantes ambientais utilizados na agricultura para o controle de pragas e ervas daninhas, podendo contaminar mananciais de abastecimento e provocar danos √† sa√ļde e ao ambiente. Dentre esses, encontram-se o diurom e o tebuconazol, agrot√≥xicos com uso autorizado no Brasil em culturas de relev√Ęncia econ√īmica, como soja, milho e cana-de-a√ß√ļcar. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revis√£o de literatura sobre a ocorr√™ncia de diurom e tebuconazol em √°guas do Brasil, avaliando ainda a comercializa√ß√£o desses compostos nos estados brasileiros ao longo dos √ļltimos anos. Diurom e tebuconazol foram amplamente comercializados no Brasil entre os anos de 2009 e 2020, destacando-se as comercializa√ß√Ķes das regi√Ķes Sudeste, Centro-Oeste e Sul. Tais compostos apresentam potencial de contamina√ß√£o das √°guas, sendo corroborado pelos dados de ocorr√™ncia reportados na literatura, que para o diurom os valores variaram de 0,0032 a 140 őľg/L e para o tebuconazol de 0,003 a 261,8 őľg/L em √°guas superficiais. Para ambos, apenas um dado foi quantificado em √°guas superficiais acima do VMP de acordo com a portaria de potabilidade da √°gua. O estudo evidencia ainda a necessidade de maiores estudos acerca desses compostos em √°guas brasileiras, principalmente em locais pr√≥ximos de √°reas agr√≠colas, uma vez que os dados reportados na literatura abrangem um n√ļmero pequeno de munic√≠pios

    Ocorr√™ncia de subst√Ęncias qu√≠micas en sitemas de abastecimento de √°gua do Brasil: Uma abordagem n√£o-param√©trica para a an√°lise estat√≠stica de dados do Sisagua

    Get PDF
    The objective of this work was to develop a methodology for statistical analysis of monitoring data of chemical compounds in drinking water supply systems in Brazil, using data from Sisagua (Drinking Water Quality Surveillance Information System). Initially, the inconsistencies in the database were identified and adjusted. Then, the descriptive statistics were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier (KM) method, evaluating its applicability in different censored data sets. The descriptive parameters were compared with the substitution method. The substitution method showed susceptibility to biased estimates, especially for groups of compounds containing high percentage of censored data and with high limits of quantification and detection, leading to higher descriptive parameters compared to KM method. This work reinforces the need to use appropriate methods for analyzing environmental data and evidences that the analysis of this type of data may be complex. The methods proposed here can help environmental scientists to deal with this issue, providing a systematic procedure to check and solve consistency problems, as well as presenting a nonparametric approach for computing descriptive statistics for environmental monitoring data.Este estudo teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para o tratamento estat√≠stico de dados de monitoramento de subst√Ęncias qu√≠micas em sistemas de abastecimento de √°gua do Brasil, utilizando-se dados do SISAGUA (Sistema de Informa√ß√£o de Vigil√Ęncia da Qualidade da √Āgua para Consumo Humano). Prop√īs-se uma metodologia para a an√°lise de consist√™ncia da base de dados, bem solu√ß√Ķes para todas as inconsist√™ncias identificadas. Em seguida, estat√≠sticas descritivas foram estimadas pelo m√©todo de Kaplan-Meier (KM), avaliando-se a sua aplicabilidade a diferentes propor√ß√Ķes de dados censurados. Os par√Ęmetros descritivos obtidos pelo m√©todo de KM foram comparados aos obtidos pelo m√©todo de substitui√ß√£o. De modo geral, o m√©todo de substitui√ß√£o demonstrou maior suscetibilidade a estimativas enviesadas, notadamente com o aumento do percentual de censura e em meio a elevados limites de quantifica√ß√£o e detec√ß√£o, conduzindo √†estimativa de par√Ęmetros descritivos mais altos em rela√ß√£o aos estimados pelo m√©todo de KM. O estudo refor√ßa a necessidade do uso de m√©todos apropriados para a an√°lise de dados ambientais, al√©m de evidenciar que o tratamento desse tipo de dado pode ser uma tarefa complexa. Dessa forma, a metodologia proposta pode ser √ļtil a pesquisadores, uma vez que apresenta um processo sistem√°tico de identifica√ß√£o e corre√ß√£o de inconsist√™ncias, bem como uma abordagem n√£o param√©trica para a obten√ß√£o de estat√≠sticas descritivas para dados de monitoramento ambiental

    Agrot√≥xicos priorit√°rios n√£o abordados pela Portaria GM do Minist√©rio da Sa√ļde n¬ļ 888, de 2021, sobre padr√£o de potabilidade da √°gua no Brasil

    Get PDF
    The intense use of pesticides can be harmful to the environment and human health, being necessary to monitor the environmental concentrations of pesticides. The legislation on drinking water for human consumption is one of the guiding regulations about monitoring priority. Therefore, a systematic review was carried out to compile information on the contamination of surface water, groundwater, and treated water in Brazil. Thereby, we selected those pesticides which, although they are authorized for use and are among the topselling pesticides, are not regulated by GM Ordinance of the Ministry of Health (GM/MS) No. 888, of May 4, 2021. The databases used were PubMed, Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. Of the 122 pesticides in the market, 11 were selected. Analyses of environmental dynamics, concentration, and health effects were carried out. The Goss methodology and the Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS) index were used to estimate the risk of surface water and groundwater contamination, respectively. The concentrations found were compared with the values provided for in the guidelines adopted by international agencies, determining the Brazilian population‚Äôs margin of exposure (MOE) to the target pesticides. The results indicate a high probability of finding imidacloprid and hexazinone in the water, the prevalence of studies on surface waters, and the need to conduct additional studies as papers on some of the target pesticides were not found. It is concluded that the pesticides studied pose a low risk to human health, however, further studies are still required.O intenso uso de agrot√≥xicos pode ser prejudicial ao meio ambiente e √† sa√ļde humana, tornando necess√°rio o monitoramento de suas concentra√ß√Ķes ambientais. Como um dos dispositivos norteadores sobre a prioridade de monitoramento √© a legisla√ß√£o de √°gua pot√°vel para consumo humano, foi realizada uma revis√£o sistem√°tica da literatura com o objetivo de compilar informa√ß√Ķes sobre a contamina√ß√£o das √°guas superficiais, subterr√Ęneas e tratadas por agrot√≥xicos. Foram considerados os agrot√≥xicos mais vendidos em territ√≥rio brasileiro entre 2009 e 2019 e que possuem autoriza√ß√£o de uso, mas que n√£o s√£o regulamentados pela Portaria GM do Minist√©rio da Sa√ļde n¬ļ 888, de 4 de maio de 2021. Dos 122 agrot√≥xicos comercializados, 11 foram selecionados. Analisaram-se a din√Ęmica ambiental, concentra√ß√£o em √°guas e efeitos na sa√ļde humana. Na estimativa do risco de contamina√ß√£o das √°guas superficiais e subterr√Ęneas, empregou-se a metodologia Goss e o √≠ndice Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS), respectivamente. Uma compara√ß√£o cr√≠tica sobre as concentra√ß√Ķes encontradas e os valores-guia adotados por ag√™ncias internacionais foi realizada, determinando-se a margem de exposi√ß√£o da popula√ß√£o brasileira aos agrot√≥xicos. Os resultados do trabalho mostraram a maior probabilidade de que imidacloprido e hexazinona sejam encontrados em √°guas; a preval√™ncia de estudos realizados em √°guas superficiais; e a necessidade de que mais trabalhos sejam realizados, uma vez que n√£o foram encontrados artigos sobre alguns dos compostos-alvo. Conclui-se que os agrot√≥xicos estudados apresentam baixo risco √† sa√ļde, todavia se v√™ a necessidade de que mais estudos sejam desenvolvidos

    Ocorr√™ncia de chumbo, cromo e merc√ļrio em mananciais de abastecimento e em √°gua de consumo humano no Brasil

    Get PDF
    Devido ao iminente risco de contamina√ß√£o de mananciais de abastecimento por resposta √†s a√ß√Ķes antr√≥picas e considerando a toxicidade de metais pesados aos seres humanos, esse estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar a ocorr√™ncia de chumbo, cromo e merc√ļrio, em mananciais de abastecimento de √°gua e √°gua de consumo humano no Brasil. Para isso, foram utilizados dados secund√°rios de monitoramento de mananciais de abastecimento e √°guas tratadas obtidos por meio do Sistema de Informa√ß√£o de Vigil√Ęncia da Qualidade da √Āgua para Consumo Humano (SISAGUA). Foram obtidas estat√≠sticas descritivas da ocorr√™ncia de cada metal nas matrizes dos sistemas de abastecimento das diferentes macrorregi√Ķes brasileiras. Al√©m disso, foram estimados valores de refer√™ncia para a concentra√ß√£o dessas esp√©cies em mananciais de abastecimento e √°guas pot√°veis dos munic√≠pios brasileiros e comparados as legisla√ß√Ķes brasileiras. De maneira geral, verificou-se a manuten√ß√£o de conformidade das concentra√ß√Ķes dos metais avaliados nos mananciais de abastecimento e √°guas pot√°veis nas regi√Ķes brasileiras. No entanto, alguns munic√≠pios demonstraram concentra√ß√Ķes superiores aos limites estabelecidos, caracterizando risco √† sa√ļde da popula√ß√£o. No caso do merc√ļrio, tamb√©m se observou um alto percentual de munic√≠pios com concentra√ß√Ķes superiores ao limite estabelecido para mananciais superficiais de √°guas doces de classes 1 e 2

    Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Compounds in Brazilian Water and the Risks They May Represent to Human Health

    No full text
    The risks of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds (P&EDC) to the environment and human health are a current topic of interest. Hundreds of P&EDC may reach the environment, hence, there is a need to rank the level of concern of human exposure to these compounds. Thus, this work aimed at setting a priority list of P&EDC in Brazil, by studying their occurrence in raw and drinking water, calculating health guideline values (GV), and estimating the risks of population exposure to water intake. Data on the Brazilian pharmaceutical market as well as published data of the monitoring of Brazilian natural and drinking water have been collected by means of an exhaustive literature review. Furthermore, many foreign data were also collected to enable a comparison of the values found in Brazilian studies. A list of 55 P&EDC that have the potential to be found in Brazilian water is proposed, and for 41 of these a risk assessment was performed by estimating their margin of exposure (ME), by considering their occurrence in drinking water, and guideline values estimated from reported acceptable daily intake (ADI) data. For seven compounds the risk was deemed high (three estrogens and four anti-inflammatories), whereas for another seven compounds, it was regarded as an ‘alert’ situation. Although such risk analysis is conservative, since it has been calculated based on the highest reported P&EDC concentration in drinking water, it highlights the need to enhance their monitoring in Brazil to strengthen the database and support decision makers. An analysis of the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance agents (antibiotics, resistant bacteria, and resistance genes) in surface waters was also carried out and confirmed that such agents are present in water sources throughout Brazil, which deserves the attention of policy makers and health agents to prevent dissemination of antimicrobial resistance through water use

    Behavior of micropollutants in polishing units that combine sorption and biodegradation mechanisms to improve the quality of activated sludge effluent.

    No full text
    The current study evaluated the removal of six micropollutants (estrone (E1); 17?-estradiol (E2); 17?-ethynylestradiol (EE2); ibuprofen (IBP), diclofenac (DCF), and paracetamol (PCT)) from the final effluent of an activated sludge domestic sewage treatment plant using polishing filters. Four polishing filters were assembled as columns and filled with a mixture of sand and vermiculite, sand and charcoal, sand and granulated activated carbon (9:1 by volume), and sand only. The column filters were placed near the outlet of a full-scale activated sludge treatment plant and were fed with a treated effluent containing from 4.71 to 28.93 ng L-1 of the target compounds at a hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 50 m3 m?2 day?1. Samples were collected periodically from the influent (biologically treated sewage) and effluent of the four columns and analyzed for estrogens, anti-inflammatories, and analgesic compounds. Liquid samples were submitted to a solid phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry after their derivatization. Among the compounds found, diclofenac was distinguished by the high occurrence of detection in the samples (85%) and higher mean concentration (~?17 ng L?1). High removal efficiency (>?90%) of the estrogens was observed in the polishing systems studied, while for the other targets, the removal efficiency varied from 10 to 30%. The concentration values of some compounds were low, probably due to rainfall during the sampling period

    Alternatives to odor and corrosion control in sanitary sewerage systems and treatment plants

    Get PDF
    <p></p><p>ABSTRACT This paper aims to consolidating the main characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of available methods in technical-scientific community to odor and corrosion control in sanitary sewerage systems and treatment plants, taking along an innovative approach on preventive solutions related to sewage systems design and operation with addition of chemicals or liquid phase aeration. The main beliefs of each technique are presented as well as the main guidelines for alternatives design. In addition, guidelines are given for corrective solutions design of covers and exhaust of potentially odorous sources, as well as a brief discussion of processes currently available in the technical-scientific community to the treatment of odorant odorous and corrosive gases.</p><p></p

    Remo√ß√£o de f√°rmacos e desreguladores end√≥crinos em esta√ß√Ķes de tratamento de esgoto: revis√£o da literatura

    Get PDF
    O monitoramento ambiental dos chamados microcontaminantes ou micropoluentes vem ganhando grande interesse da comunidade cient√≠fica desde os anos 1970. Nesse grupo de contaminantes est√£o inclu√≠dos f√°rmacos de diversas classes, produtos de limpeza e higiene pessoal, subst√Ęncias aplicadas na produ√ß√£o de pl√°sticos e resinas, pesticidas, horm√īnios naturais e seus subprodutos, entre outros compostos. A principal via de contamina√ß√£o do meio ambiente com f√°rmacos e desreguladores end√≥crinos (DE) √© o lan√ßamento de esgotos in natura e tratado. Nesse contexto, este artigo compila dados de ocorr√™ncia de f√°rmacos e DE no afluente e efluente de esta√ß√Ķes de tratamento de esgoto (ETE), discute os mecanismos envolvidos na sua remo√ß√£o em ETE e faz uma an√°lise comparativa da remo√ß√£o de tais compostos em diferentes sistemas de tratament

    Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting chemicals in simplified sewage treatment systems.

    Get PDF
    This work assessed the behaviour of nine pharmaceuticals and/or endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in demo-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB reactors) coupled to distinct simplified post-treatment units (submerged bed, polishing ponds, and trickling filters) fed on raw sewage taken from a municipality in Brazil. The dissolved concentration of the studied micropollutants in the raw and treated sewage was obtained using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis in a liquid chromatography system coupled to a hybrid high resolution mass spectrometer consisting of an ion-trap and time of flight (LC-MS-IT-TOF). The UASB reactors demonstrated that they were not appropriate for efficiently removing the assessed compounds from the sewage. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was an important parameter for the removal of the hydrophilic and less biodegradable compounds, such as trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. The post-treatment units substantially increased the removal of most target micropollutants present in the anaerobic effluents, with a greater removal of micropollutants in simplified systems that require a large construction area, such as the submerged bed and polishing ponds, probably because of the higher HRT employed. Alternatively, compact post-treatment systems, such as trickling filters, tended to be less effective at removing most of the micropollutants studied, and the type of packing proved to be crucial for determining the fate of such compounds using trickling filters
    corecore