367 research outputs found

    A VIOL√äNCIA, A ESCOLA E AS POL√ćTICAS DE ENFRENTAMENTO

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    Este artigo analisa alguns aspectos da viol√™ncia na literatura internacional e na institui√ß√£o escolar. Considera-se a viol√™ncia na escola um tema relevante de pol√≠tica educacional, pois afeta a vida da institui√ß√£o escolar e envolve os atores comprometidos com a educa√ß√£o. Analisa-se a viol√™ncia derivada das normatiza√ß√Ķes da escola, as manifesta√ß√Ķes de viol√™ncia nas intera√ß√Ķes interpessoais entre docente e discente e a viol√™ncia presente na rela√ß√£o do aluno consigo mesmo e no conv√≠vio com seus pares. Neste texto, avalia-se que a supera√ß√£o da viol√™ncia escolar n√£o possa se dar a partir de uma a√ß√£o isolada, ela depende de uma a√ß√£o coletiva que envolva as inst√Ęncias administrativas, a escola, os professores e os pr√≥prios alunos

    Pain Modulation in WAG/Rij Epileptic Rats (A Genetic Model of Absence Epilepsy): Effects of Biological and Pharmacological Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors

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    Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in epilepsy and chronic pain development. About that, we studied the effects of the natural histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (BUT) in comparison with valproic acid (VPA) in a validated genetic model of generalized absence epilepsy and epileptogenesis. WAG/Rij rats were treated with BUT (30¬†mg/kg), VPA (300¬†mg/kg), and their combination (BUT + VPA) daily per os for 6¬†months. Rats were subjected at Randall-Selitto, von Frey, hot plate, and tail flick tests after 1, 3, and 6¬†months of treatment to evaluate hypersensitivity to noxious and non-noxiuous stimuli. Moreover, PPAR-ő≥ (G3335 1¬†mg/kg), GABA-B (CGP35348 80¬†mg/kg), and opioid (naloxone 1¬†mg/kg) receptor antagonists were administrated to investigate the possible mechanisms involved in analgesic activity. The expression of NFkB, glutathione reductase, and protein oxidation (carbonylation) was also evaluated by Western blot analysis. WAG/Rij rats showed an altered pain threshold throughout the study (p < 0.001). BUT and BUT + VPA treatment reduced hypersensitivity (p < 0.01). VPA was significantly effective only after 1 month (p < 0.01). All the three receptors are involved in BUT + VPA effects (p < 0.001). BUT and BUT + VPA decreased the expression of NFkB and enhanced glutathione reductase (p < 0.01); protein oxidation (carbonylation) was reduced (p < 0.01). No effect was reported with VPA. In conclusion BUT, alone or in coadministration with VPA, is a valuable candidate for managing the epilepsy-related persistent pain

    Differences in Atrial Remodeling in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Compared to Hypertensive Heart Disease and Athletes’ Hearts.

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    BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), hypertensive heart disease (HHD) and athletes' heart share an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation. Atrial cardiomyopathy in these patients may have different characteristics and help to distinguish these conditions. METHODS: In this single-center study, we prospectively collected and analyzed electrocardiographic (12-lead ECG, signal-averaged ECG (SAECG), 24 h Holter ECG) and echocardiographic data in patients with HCM and HHD and in endurance athletes. Patients with atrial fibrillation were excluded. RESULTS: We compared data of 27 patients with HCM (70% males, mean age 50 +/- 14 years), 324 patients with HHD (52% males, mean age 75 +/- 5.5 years), and 215 endurance athletes (72% males, mean age 42 +/- 7.5 years). HCM patients had significantly longer filtered P-wave duration (153 +/- 26 ms) and PR interval (191 +/- 48 ms) compared to HHD patients (144 +/- 16 ms, p = 0.012 and 178 +/- 31, p = 0.034, respectively) and athletes (134 +/- 14 ms, p = 0.001 and 165 +/- 26 ms, both p &lt; 0.001, respectively). HCM patients had a mean of 4.9 +/- 16 premature atrial complexes per hour. Premature atrial complexes per hour were significantly more frequent in HHD patients (27 +/- 86, p &lt; 0.001), but not in athletes (2.7 +/- 23, p = 0.639). Left atrial volume index (LAVI) was 43 +/- 14 mL/m(2) in HCM patients and significantly larger than age- and sex-corrected LAVI in HHD patients 30 +/- 10 mL/m(2); p &lt; 0.001) and athletes (31 +/- 9.5 mL/m(2); p &lt; 0.001). A borderline interventricular septum thickness >/=13 mm and </=15 mm was found in 114 (35%) HHD patients, 12 (6%) athletes and 3 (11%) HCM patients. CONCLUSIONS: Structural and electrical atrial remodeling is more advanced in HCM patients compared to HHD patients and athletes
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