128 research outputs found

    The Quest to Identify a New Virus Disease of Sunflower from Nebraska

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    Between 2010 and 2018, sunflower plants exhibiting virus-like symptoms, including stunting, mottling, and chlorotic ringspots on leaves, were observed from commercial fields and research plots from four sites within three distinct counties of western Nebraska (Box Butte, Kimball, and Scotts Bluff). Near identical symptoms from field samples were reproduced on seedlings mechanically in the greenhouse on multiple occasions, confirming the presence of a sap-transmissible virus from each site. Symptomatic greenhouse-inoculated plants from the 2010 and 2011 Box Butte samples tested negative for sunflower mosaic virus (SuMV), sunflower chlorotic mottle virus (SuCMoV), and all potyviruses in general by ELISA and RT-PCR. Similar virallike symptoms were later observed on plants in a commercial sunflower field in Kimball County in 2014, and again from volunteers in research plots in Scotts Bluff County in 2018. Samples from both of these years were again successfully reproduced on seedlings in the greenhouse as before following mechanical transmissions. Symptom expression for all years began 12 to 14 days after inoculation as mild yellow spots followed by the formation of chlorotic ringspots from the mottled pattern. The culture from 2014 tested negatively for three groups of nepoviruses via RT-PCR, ruling this group out. However, transmission electron microscopy assays of greenhouse-infected plants from both 2014 and 2018 revealed the presence of distinct, polyhedral virus particles. With the use of high throughput sequencing and RT-PCR, it was confirmed that the infections from both years were caused by a new virus in the tombusvirus genus and was proposed to be called Sunflower ring spot mottle virus (SuRSMV). Although the major objective of this project was to identify the causal agent of the disease, it became evident that the diagnostic journey itself, with all the barriers encountered on the 10-year trek, was actually more important and impactful than identification

    UNBOUND

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    This adjective - ex-traor-di-nary, describes the creative talents of our graduating Fashion Design class of 2009. Their accomplishments are a true celebration of the three years of passion, hard work, and dedication of our student designers. It is our hope that family, friends and the fashion industry will enjoy the creative endeavours of the next generation of Canadian fashion talent from the Fashion design program at Fanshawe College in London, Ontario.https://first.fanshawec.ca/famd_design_fashiondesign_unbound/1006/thumbnail.jp

    Impact of Climate Change on Voltinism and Prospective Diapause Induction of a Global Pest Insect – Cydia pomonella (L.)

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    Global warming will lead to earlier beginnings and prolongation of growing seasons in temperate regions and will have pronounced effects on phenology and life-history adaptation in many species. These changes were not easy to simulate for actual phenologies because of the rudimentary temporal (season) and spatial (regional) resolution of climate model projections. We investigate the effect of climate change on the regional incidence of a pest insect with nearly worldwide distribution and very high potential for adaptation to season length and temperature – the Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella. Seasonal and regional climate change signals were downscaled to the hourly temporal scale of a pest phenology model and the spatial scale of pest habitats using a stochastic weather generator operating at daily scale in combination with a re-sampling approach for simulation of hourly weather data. Under future conditions of increased temperatures (2045–2074), the present risk of below 20% for a pronounced second generation (peak larval emergence) in Switzerland will increase to 70–100%. The risk of an additional third generation will increase from presently 0–2% to 100%. We identified a significant two-week shift to earlier dates in phenological stages, such as overwintering adult flight. The relative extent (magnitude) of first generation pupae and all later stages will significantly increase. The presence of first generation pupae and later stages will be prolonged. A significant decrease in the length of overlap of first and second generation larval emergence was identified. Such shifts in phenology may induce changes in life-history traits regulating the life cycle. An accordingly life-history adaptation in photoperiodic diapause induction to shorter day-length is expected and would thereby even more increase the risk of an additional generation. With respect to Codling Moth management, the shifts in phenology and voltinism projected here will require adaptations of plant protection strategies to maintain their sustainability

    Why Are Outcomes Different for Registry Patients Enrolled Prospectively and Retrospectively? Insights from the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the FIELD-Atrial Fibrillation (GARFIELD-AF).

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    Background: Retrospective and prospective observational studies are designed to reflect real-world evidence on clinical practice, but can yield conflicting results. The GARFIELD-AF Registry includes both methods of enrolment and allows analysis of differences in patient characteristics and outcomes that may result. Methods and Results: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and ≥1 risk factor for stroke at diagnosis of AF were recruited either retrospectively (n = 5069) or prospectively (n = 5501) from 19 countries and then followed prospectively. The retrospectively enrolled cohort comprised patients with established AF (for a least 6, and up to 24 months before enrolment), who were identified retrospectively (and baseline and partial follow-up data were collected from the emedical records) and then followed prospectively between 0-18 months (such that the total time of follow-up was 24 months; data collection Dec-2009 and Oct-2010). In the prospectively enrolled cohort, patients with newly diagnosed AF (≤6 weeks after diagnosis) were recruited between Mar-2010 and Oct-2011 and were followed for 24 months after enrolment. Differences between the cohorts were observed in clinical characteristics, including type of AF, stroke prevention strategies, and event rates. More patients in the retrospectively identified cohort received vitamin K antagonists (62.1% vs. 53.2%) and fewer received non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (1.8% vs . 4.2%). All-cause mortality rates per 100 person-years during the prospective follow-up (starting the first study visit up to 1 year) were significantly lower in the retrospective than prospectively identified cohort (3.04 [95% CI 2.51 to 3.67] vs . 4.05 [95% CI 3.53 to 4.63]; p = 0.016). Conclusions: Interpretations of data from registries that aim to evaluate the characteristics and outcomes of patients with AF must take account of differences in registry design and the impact of recall bias and survivorship bias that is incurred with retrospective enrolment. Clinical Trial Registration: - URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier for GARFIELD-AF (NCT01090362)

    Risk profiles and one-year outcomes of patients with newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation in India: Insights from the GARFIELD-AF Registry.