30,140 research outputs found

    Understanding contextual interactions to design navigational context-aware applications

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    Context-aware technology has stimulated rigorous research into novel ways to support people in a wide range of tasks and situations. However, the effectiveness of these technologies will ultimately be dependent on the extent to which contextual interactions are understood and accounted for in their design. This study involved an investigation of contextual interactions required for route navigation. The purpose was to illustrate the heterogeneous nature of humans in interaction with their environmental context. Participants were interviewed to determine how each interacts with or use objects/information in the environment in which to navigate/orientate. Results revealed that people vary individually and collectively. Usability implications for the design of navigational context-aware applications are identified and discussed

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline NiAl at 300 and 1000 K

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    The low cycle fatigue behavior of polycrystalline NiAl was determined at 300 and 1000 K - temperatures below and above the brittle- to-ductile transition temperature (BDTT). Fully reversed, plastic strain-controlled fatigue tests were conducted on two differently fabricated alloy samples: hot isostatically pressed (HIP'ed) prealloyed powder and hot extruded castings. HIP'ed powder (HP) samples were tested only at 1000 K, whereas the more ductile cast-and-extruded (C+E) NiAl samples were tested at both 1000 and 300 K. Plastic strain ranges of 0.06 to 0.2 percent were used. The C+E NiAl cyclically hardened until fracture, reaching stress levels approximately 60 percent greater than the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy. Compared on a strain basis, NiAl had a much longer fatigue life than other B2 ordered compounds in which fracture initiated at processing-related defects. These defects controlled fatigue life at 300 K, with fracture occurring rapidly once a critical stress level was reached. At 1000 K, above the BDTT, both the C+E and HP samples cyclically softened during most of the fatigue tests in air and were insensitive to processing defects. The processing method did not have a major effect on fatigue life; the lives of the HP samples were about a factor of three shorter than the C+E NiAl, but this was attributed to the lower stress response of the C+E material. The C+E NiAl underwent dynamic grain growth, whereas the HP material maintained a constant grain size during testing. In both materials, fatigue life was controlled by intergranular cavitation and creep processes, which led to fatigue crack growth that was primarily intergranular in nature. Final fracture by overload was transgranular in nature. Also, HP samples tested in vacuum had a life three times longer than their counterparts tested in air and, in contrast to those tested in air, hardened continuously over half of the sample life, thereby indicating an environmentally assisted fatigue damage mechanism. The C+E samples were tested only in air. At 1000 K, NiAl exhibited a superior fatigue life when compared to most superalloys on a plastic strain basis, but was inferior to most superalloys on a stress basis

    Health and sustainable development

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    If sustainable development is to mean anything, people must be healthy enough to benefit from it and not have their lives cut off prematurely. Development without health is meaningless. But the processes which are likely to occur in a world undergoing globalisation, climate change, urbanisation, population increase and many other changes, will impact upon human health in complex ways. Some of them will benefit us, others will create new or augmented threats to survival and health, while many others will have a complex mixture of effects

    Emotive computing may have a role in telecare

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    This brief paper sets out arguments for the introduction of new technologies into telecare and lifestyle monitoring that can detect and monitor the emotive state of patients. The significantly increased use of computers by older people will enable the elements of emotive computing to be integrated with features such as keyboards and webcams, to provide additional information on emotional state. When this is combined with other data, there will be significant opportunities for system enhancement and the identification of changes in user status, and hence of need. The ubiquity of home computing makes the keyboard a very attractive, economic and non-intrusive means of data collection and analysis

    Magnetic fields and differential rotation on the pre-main sequence

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    Maps of magnetic field topologies of rapidly rotating stars obtained over the last decade or so have provided unique insight into the operation of stellar dynamos. However, for solar-type stars many of the targets imaged to date have been lower-mass zero-age main sequence stars. We present magnetic maps and differential rotation measurements of two-higher mass pre-main sequence stars HD 106506 (~10 Myrs) and HD 141943 (~15 Myrs). These stars should evolve into mid/late F-stars with predicted high differential rotation and little magnetic activity. We investigate what effect the extended convection zones of these pre-main sequence stars has on their differential rotation and magnetic topologies. ©2009 American Institute of Physic

    Parallel discrete event simulation: A shared memory approach

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    With traditional event list techniques, evaluating a detailed discrete event simulation model can often require hours or even days of computation time. Parallel simulation mimics the interacting servers and queues of a real system by assigning each simulated entity to a processor. By eliminating the event list and maintaining only sufficient synchronization to insure causality, parallel simulation can potentially provide speedups that are linear in the number of processors. A set of shared memory experiments is presented using the Chandy-Misra distributed simulation algorithm to simulate networks of queues. Parameters include queueing network topology and routing probabilities, number of processors, and assignment of network nodes to processors. These experiments show that Chandy-Misra distributed simulation is a questionable alternative to sequential simulation of most queueing network models