2,060 research outputs found

    A Pedagogical Discussion Concerning the Gravitational Energy Radiated by Keplerian Systems

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    We first discuss the use of dimensional arguments (and of the quadrupolar emission hypothesis) in the derivation of the gravitational power radiated on a circular orbit. Then, we show how to simply obtain the instantaneous power radiated on a general Keplerian orbit by approximating it locally by a circle. This allows recovering with a good precision, in the case of an ellipse, the highly non trivial dependence on the eccentricity of the average power given by general relativity. The whole approach is understandable by undergraduate students.Comment: A simpler method has been used in the calculations, which requires now only standard knowledge (the radius of curvature is defined by the normal acceleration). Two figures have been added. Concerning the dimensional analysis, the comparison with electromagnetism has been detaile

    Chromatic LHC Optics Effects on Collimation Phase Space Cuts

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    The different levels of LHC collimators must be set up by respecting a strict setting hierarchy in order to guarantee the required performance and protection during the different operational machine stages. Two different subsystems establish betatron and momentum collimation for the LHC. Collimator betatronic phase space cuts are defined for a central on-momentum particle. However, due to the chromatic features of the LHC optics and energy deviations of particles, the different phase space cuts become coupled. Starting from the basic equation of the transverse beam dynamics, the influence of off-momentum beta-beat and dispersion on the effective collimator settings has been calculated. The results are presented, defining the allowed phase space regions from LHC collimation. The impacts on collimation-related setting tolerances and the choice of an optimized LHC optics are discussed

    Coupling of Transport and Chemical Processes in Catalytic Combustion

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    Catalytic combustors have demonstrated the ability to operate efficiently over a much wider range of fuel air ratios than are imposed by the flammability limits of conventional combustors. Extensive commercial use however needs the following: (1) the design of a catalyst with low ignition temperature and high temperature stability, (2) reducing fatigue due to thermal stresses during transient operation, and (3) the development of mathematical models that can be used as design optimization tools to isolate promising operating ranges for the numerous operating parameters. The current program of research involves the development of a two dimensional transient catalytic combustion model and the development of a new catalyst with low temperature light-off and high temperature stablity characteristics

    Experimental investigation of the mooring system of a wave energy converter in operating and extreme wave conditions

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    A proper design of the mooring systems for Wave Energy Converters (WECs) requires an accurate investigation of both operating and extreme wave conditions. A careful analysis of these systems is required to design a mooring configuration that ensures station keeping, reliability, maintainability, and low costs, without affecting the WEC dynamics. In this context, an experimental campaign on a 1:20 scaled prototype of the ISWEC (Inertial Sea Wave Energy Converter), focusing on the influence of the mooring layout on loads in extreme wave conditions, is presented and discussed. Two mooring configurations composed of multiple slack catenaries with sub-surface buoys, with or without clump-weights, have been designed and investigated experimentally. Tests in regular, irregular, and extreme waves for a moored model of the ISWEC device have been performed at the University of Naples Federico II. The aim is to identify a mooring solution that could guarantee both correct operation of the device and load carrying in extreme sea conditions. Pitch motion and loads in the rotational joint have been considered as indicators of the device hydrodynamic behavior and mooring configuration impact on the WEC

    LHC Cleaning Efficiency with Imperfections

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    The performance reach of the LHC depends on the magnitude of beam losses and the achievable cleaning efficiency of its collimation system. The ideal performance reach for the nominal Phase 1 collimation system is reviewed. However, unavoidable imperfections affect any accelerator and can further deteriorate the collimation performance. Multiple static machine and collimator imperfections were included in the LHC tracking simulations. Error models for collimator jaw flatness, collimator setup accuracy, the LHC orbit and the LHC aperture were set up, based to the maximum extent possible on measurements and results of experimental beam tests. It is shown that combined “realistic” imperfections can reduce the LHC cleaning efficiency by about a factor 11 on average

    The Gateway approach providing EGEE/GLITE access to non-standard architectures

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    This paper describes the gateway architecture and the required modifications to the gLite Middleware to make available to the GRID computing machines whose hardware/software architecture is non directly supported by gLite. This work has been performed in the framework of the integration of ENEA-GRID and EGEE infrastructure

    Beam Commissioning Plan For LHC Collimation

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    The Large Hadron Collider extends the present state-of-the-art in stored beam energy by 2-3 orders of magnitude. A sophisticated system of collimators is implemented along the 27 km ring and mainly in two dedicated cleaning insertions, to intercept and absorb unavoidable beam losses which could induce quenches in the superconducting (sc) magnets. 88 collimators for the two beams are initially installed for the so called Phase 1. An optimized strategy for the commissioning of this considerable number of collimators has been defined. This optimized strategy maximizes cleaning efficiency and tolerances available for operation, while minimizing the required beam time for collimator setup and ensuring at all times the required passive machine protection. It is shown that operational tolerances from collimation can initially be significantly relaxed