6,805 research outputs found

    The Ks-band Luminosity and Stellar Mass Functions of Galaxies in z~1 Clusters

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    We present the near-infrared (Ks-band) luminosity function of galaxies in two z~1 cluster candidates, 3C336 and Q1335+28. A third cluster, 3C289, was observed but found to be contaminated by a foreground system. Our wide field imaging data reach to Ks=20.5 (5sigma), corresponding to ~M*+2.7 with respect to the passive evolution. The near-infrared luminosity traces the stellar mass of a galaxy due to its small sensitivity to the recent star formation history. Thus the luminosity function can be transformed to the stellar mass function of galaxies using the JKJ-K colours with only a small correction (factor<2) for the effects of on-going star formation. The derived stellar mass function spans a wide range in mass from ~3 x 10^{11}Msun down to ~6 x 10^{9}Msun (set by the magnitude limit). The form of the mass function is very similar to lower redshift counterparts such as that from 2MASS/LCRS clusters (Balogh et al. 2001) and the z=0.31 clusters (Barger et al. 1998). This indicates little evolution of galaxy masses from z=1 to the present-day. Combined with colour data that suggest star formation is completed early (z>>1) in the cluster core, it seems that the galaxy formation processes (both star formation and mass assembly) are strongly accerelated in dense environments and has been largely completed by z=1. We investigate whether the epoch of mass assembly of massive cluster galaxies is earlier than that predicted by the hierarchical galaxy formation models. These models predict the increase of characteristic mass by more than factor ~3 between z=1 and the present day. This seems incompatible with our data.Comment: 12 pages, including 12 figures, uses mn.sty and epsf.sty. Accepted for publication in MNRAS Main Journa

    Galaxy bulges and their black holes: a requirement for the quenching of star formation

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    One of the central features of the last 8 to 10 billion years of cosmic history has been the emergence of a well-populated red sequence of non-star-forming galaxies. A number of models of galaxy formation and evolution have been devised to attempt to explain this behavior. Most current models require feedback from supermassive black holes (AGN feedback) to quench star formation in galaxies in the centers of their dark matter halos (central galaxies). Such models make the strong prediction that all quenched central galaxies must have a large supermassive black hole (and, by association, a prominent bulge component). I show using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that the observations are consistent with this prediction. Over 99.5% of red sequence galaxies with stellar masses in excess of 10^{10} M_{\sun} have a prominent bulge component (as defined by having a Sersic index n above 1.5). Those very rare red sequence central galaxies with little or no bulge (n<1.5) usually have detectable star formation or AGN activity; the fraction of truly quenched bulgeless central galaxies is <0.1% of the total red sequence population. I conclude that a bulge, and by implication a supermassive black hole, is an absolute requirement for full quenching of star formation in central galaxies. This is in agreement with the most basic prediction of the AGN feedback paradigm.Comment: 6 pages, 4 color figures (figure 1 is of slightly degraded quality). To appear in August 1 edition of the Astrophysical Journa

    Reconstructing the History of Star Formation in Rich Cluster Cores

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    We address the current crucial issues on the formation and evolution of cluster galaxies: ie., connection between the Butcher-Oemler effect, assembly of cluster galaxies, truncation of star formation, and the origin of S0 galaxies. We construct the field corrected colour-magnitude (CM) diagrams for 7 CNOC clusters (0.23<z<0.43) and Coma, and illustrate the evolution of the complete cluster population down to the present-day based on the model in which star formation is truncated when the galaxies infall from the surrounding field. We show that the blue galaxies are incorporated into the present-day tight CM relation as they fade and become redder after the truncation, which is possibly responsible for producing faint S0's (>M*+1). Truncation of star formation is, however, found to be relatively milder (with a time scale of 1 Gyr) than suggested by the viorent processes such as ram-pressure stripping and/or mergers/harassment. The BO effect is after all found to be a combination of three effects, namely, increasing field star formation activity, increasing galaxy infall rate, and the truncatin of star formation after the accretion. Our approach naturally leads to the history of galaxy assembly and `global' star foramtion for `cluster' galaxies.Comment: 20 pages, 12 figures, Accepted for Publication in MNRAS (first submitted on 9th Feb 2000

    The First Detailed X-ray Observations of High-Redshift, Optically-Selected Clusters: XMM-Newton Results for Cl 1324+3011 at z = 0.76 and Cl 1604+4304 at z = 0.90

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    We present the first detailed X-ray observations of optically-selected clusters at high redshift. Two clusters, Cl 1324+3011 at z = 0.76 and Cl 1604+4304 at z = 0.90, were observed with XMM-Newton. The optical center of each cluster is coincident with an extended X-ray source whose emission is detected out to a radius of 0.5 Mpc. The emission from each cluster appears reasonably circular, with some indication of asymmetries and more complex morphologies. Similarly to other optically-selected clusters at redshifts of z > 0.4, both clusters are modest X-ray emitters with bolometric luminosities of only Lx = 1.4 - 2.0 x 10^(44) erg/s. We measure gas temperatures of T = 2.88 (+0.71/-0.49) keV for Cl 1324+3011 and 2.51 (+1.05/-0.69) keV for Cl 1604+4304. The X-ray properties of both clusters are consistent with the high-redshift Lx-T relation measured from X-ray-selected samples at z > 0.5. However, based on the local relations, their X-ray luminosities and temperatures are low for their measured velocity dispersions (sigma). The clusters are cooler by a factor of 2 - 9 compared to the local sigma-T relation. We briefly discuss the possible explanations for these results.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures; accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal Letters; version with full resolution figures available at http://bubba.ucdavis.edu/~lubin/xmm.pd

    The Ages of Elliptical Galaxies in a Merger Model

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    The tightness of the observed colour-magnitude and Mg2_{2}- velocity dispersion relations for elliptical galaxies has often been cited as an argument against a picture in which ellipticals form by the merging of spiral disks. A common view is that merging would mix together stars of disparate ages and produce a large scatter in these relations. Here I use semi-analytic models of galaxy formation to derive the distribution of the mean ages, colours and metallicities of the stars in elliptical galaxies formed by mergers in a flat CDM universe. It is seen that most of the stars in ellipticals form at relatively high redshift (z > 1.9) and that the predicted scatter in the colour-magnitude and Mg_2 - sigma relations falls within observational bounds. I conclude that the apparent homogeneity in the properties of the stellar populations of ellipticals is not inconsistent with a merger scenario for the origin of these systems.Comment: latex file, figures available upon reques

    The Monster's Fiery Breath and its Impact on Galaxy Formation

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    My aim in this talk is to make clear that there are two sides to galaxy formation: the properties of the galaxies themselves, and the properties of the material that is left over from the galaxy formation process. To date, galaxy formation studies have focused on correctly predicting the properties of galaxies, and I will review the tremendous level of success in this area. However, these models usually ignore the ``flip side'' of galaxy formation: the intergalactic medium and the intra-group/intra-cluster medium (ICM). Yet, Chandra and XMM have given us a good view of the ICM and their results present an equally important challenge for theoretical models. I will show that this challenge is far from easy to meet, but describe the Bower et al 2008 model of galaxy formation which successfully combines both sides of the observational constraints.Comment: To appear in proceedings of the conference "The Monster's Fiery Breath: Feedback in Galaxies, Groups, and Clusters", June 2009, Madison Wisconsi

    Colors, magnitudes and velocity dispersions in early-type galaxies: Implications for galaxy ages and metallicities

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    We present an analysis of the color-magnitude-velocity dispersion relation for a sample of 39320 early-type galaxies within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We demonstrate that the color-magnitude relation is entirely a consequence of the fact that both the luminosities and colors of these galaxies are correlated with stellar velocity dispersions. Previous studies of the color-magnitude relation over a range of redshifts suggest that the luminosity of an early-type galaxy is an indicator of its metallicity, whereas residuals in color from the relation are indicators of the luminosity-weighted age of its stars. We show that this, when combined with our finding that velocity dispersion plays a crucial role, has a number of interesting implications. First, galaxies with large velocity dispersions tend to be older (i.e., they scatter redward of the color-magnitude relation). Similarly, galaxies with large dynamical mass estimates also tend to be older. In addition, at fixed luminosity, galaxies which are smaller, or have larger velocity dispersions, or are more massive, tend to be older. Second, models in which galaxies with the largest velocity dispersions are also the most metal poor are difficult to reconcile with our data. However, at fixed velocity dispersion, galaxies have a range of ages and metallicities: the older galaxies have smaller metallicities, and vice-versa. Finally, a plot of velocity dispersion versus luminosity can be used as an age indicator: lines of constant age run parallel to the correlation between velocity dispersion and luminosity.Comment: 12 pages, 9 figures. Accepted by A

    Massive and Red Objects predicted by a semianalytical model of galaxy formation

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    We study whether hierarchical galaxy formation in a concordance Λ\LambdaCDM universe can produce enough massive and red galaxies compared to the observations. We implement a semi-analytical model in which the central black holes gain their mass during major mergers of galaxies and the energy feedback from active galaxy nuclei (AGN) suppresses the gas cooling in their host halos. The energy feedback from AGN acts effectively only in massive galaxies when supermassive black holes have been formed in the central bulges. Compared with previous models without black hole formation, our model predicts more massive and luminous galaxies at high redshift, agreeing with the observations of K20 up to z3z\sim 3. Also the predicted stellar mass density from massive galaxies agrees with the observations of GDDS. Because of the energy feedback from AGN, the formation of new stars is stopped in massive galaxies with the termination of gas cooling and these galaxies soon become red with color RK>R-K>5 (Vega magnitude), comparable to the Extremely Red Objects (EROs) observed at redshift zz\sim1-2. Still the predicted number density of very EROs is lower than observed at z2z\sim 2, and it may be related to inadequate descriptions of dust extinction, star formation history and AGN feedback in those luminous galaxies.Comment: Accepted for Publication in ApJ, added reference
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