28 research outputs found

    Compound heterozygosity for dominant and recessive GJB2 mutations in a Tunisian family and association with successful cochlear implant outcome.

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    International audienceOBJECTIVES: Mutations of GJB2 encoding connexin 26 are the most common cause of hearing loss. They are responsible for up to 50% of ARNSHL. The pathogenic mutations in this gene are generally inherited recessively. Dominant mutations in GJB2 also cause hearing loss, either in isolated non-syndromic form or as part of a syndrome associated with various skin disorders. METHODS: We screened a Tunisian child affected by congenital, bilateral, profound, sensorineural hearing loss for mutations in GJB2 gene using PCR and direct sequencing. RESULTS: The proband was found to be compound heterozygous for recessive and dominant GJB2 mutations respectively p.V37I (c.109G>A) and p.R143Q (c.428G>A). Surprisingly the hearing mother is a carrier for this dominant GJB2 mutation. This proband underwent a cochlear implant at four years old. The evaluation using APCEI and IT-MAIS tests at six months post implantation indicates a successful cochlear implant outcome since the deaf child began to acquire language abilities and auditory sensation. CONCLUSIONS: The p.R143Q mutation was described for the first time in Tunisia. We confirm the low penetrance of this mutation since the proband mother is a carrier despite her normal hearing. We show the effectiveness of cochlear implant to restore the communication abilities and auditory sensation for our patient

    Centenarians consistently present a younger epigenetic age than their chronological age with four epigenetic clocks based on a small number of CpG sites

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    International audienceAging is a progressive time-dependent biological process affecting differentially individuals, who can sometimes present exceptional longevity. Epigenetic alterations are one of the hallmarks of aging, which comprise the epigenetic drift and clock at DNA methylation level. In the present study, we estimated the DNA methylation-based age (DNAmage) using four epigenetic clocks based on a small number of CpGs in French centenarians and semi-supercentenarians (CSSC, n=214) as well as nonagenarians' and centenarians' offspring (NCO, n=143) compared to individuals from the French general population (CG, n=149). DNA methylation analysis of the nine CpGs included in the epigenetic clocks showed high correlation with chronological age (-0.66>R>0.54) and also the presence of an epigenetic drift for four CpGs that was only visible in CSSC. DNAmage analysis showed that CSSC and to a lesser extend NCO present a younger DNAmage than their chronological age (15-28.5 years for CSSC, 4.4-11.5 years for NCO and 4.2-8.2 years for CG), which were strongly significant in CSSC compared to CG (p-values<2.2e-16). These differences suggest that epigenetic aging and potentially biological aging are slowed in exceptionally long-lived individuals and that epigenetic clocks based on a small number of CpGs are sufficient to reveal alterations of the global epigenetic clock

    A high-throughput real-time PCR tissue-of-origin test to distinguish blood from lymphoblastoid cell line DNA for (epi)genomic studies

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    International audienceAbstract Lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derive from blood infected in vitro by Epstein–Barr virus and were used in several genetic, transcriptomic and epigenomic studies. Although few changes were shown between LCL and blood genotypes (SNPs) validating their use in genetics, more were highlighted for other genomic features and/or in their transcriptome and epigenome. This could render them less appropriate for these studies, notably when blood DNA could still be available. Here we developed a simple, high-throughput and cost-effective real-time PCR approach allowing to distinguish blood from LCL DNA samples based on the presence of EBV relative load and rearranged T-cell receptors Îł and ÎČ. Our approach was able to achieve 98.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity on DNA of known origin (458 blood and 316 LCL DNA). It was further applied to 1957 DNA samples from the CEPH Aging cohort comprising DNA of uncertain origin, identifying 784 blood and 1016 LCL DNA. A subset of these DNA was further analyzed with an epigenetic clock indicating that DNA extracted from blood should be preferred to LCL for DNA methylation-based age prediction analysis. Our approach could thereby be a powerful tool to ascertain the origin of DNA in old collections prior to (epi)genomic studies

    A Tunisian patient with two rare syndromes: triple a syndrome and congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

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    International audienceThe coexistence of triple A syndrome (AAAS) and congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) has so far not been reported in the literature. This study aimed to characterize at the clinical and genetic level one patient presenting an association of AAAS and CHH in order to identify causal mutations.Clinical and endocrinal investigations were performed and followed by mutational screening of candidate genes. At the age of 18, the patient presented sexual infantilism, a micropenis and gynecomastia. No mutation was revealed in GnRHR, TACR3/TAC3, PROK2/PROKR2 and PROP1 genes, except a homozygous intronic variation (c.244 + 128C>T; dbSNP: rs350129) in the KISS1R gene, which is likely nondeleterious. A homozygous splice-donor site mutation (IVS14 + 1G>A) was found in the AAAS gene. This mutation, responsible for AAAS, is a founder mutation in North Africa.This is the first report on a Tunisian patient with the coexistence of AAAS and CHH. The diagnosis of CHH should be taken in consideration in patients with Allgrove syndrome and who carry the IVS14 + 1G>A mutation as this might challenge appropriate genetic counseling

    Oligogenic Inheritance Underlying Incomplete Penetrance of PROKR2 Mutations in Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

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    International audienceThe role of the prokineticin 2 pathway in human reproduction, olfactory bulb morphogenesis, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion is well established. Recent studies have highlighted the implication of di/oligogenic inheritance in this disorder. In the present study, we aimed to identify the genetic mechanisms that could explain incomplete penetrance in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). This study involved two unrelated Tunisian patients with HH, which was triggered by identifying a homozygous p.(Pro290Ser) mutation in the PROKR2 gene in a girl (HH1) with Kallmann syndrome (KS). The functional effect of this variant has previously been well demonstrated. Unexpectedly, her unaffected father (HH1P) and brother (HH1F) also carried this genetic variation at a homozygous state. In the second family, we identified a heterozygous p.(Lys205del) mutation in PROKR2 , both in a male patient with normosmic idiopathic IHH (HH12) and his asymptomatic mother. Whole-exome sequencing in the three HH1 family members allowed the identification of additional variants in the prioritized genes. We then carried out digenic combination predictions using the oligogenic resource for variant analysis (ORVAL) software. For HH1, we found the highest number of disease-causing variant pairs. Notably, a CCDC141 variant (c.2803C &gt; T) was involved in 18 pathogenic digenic combinations. The CCDC141 variant acts in an autosomal recessive inheritance mode, based on the digenic effect prediction data. For the second patient (HH12), prediction by ORVAL allowed the identification of an interesting pathogenic digenic combination between DUSP6 and SEMA7A genes, predicted as “dual molecular diagnosis.” The SEMA7A variant p.(Glu436Lys) is novel and predicted as a VUS by Varsome. Sanger validation revealed the absence of this variant in the healthy mother. We hypothesize that disease expression in HH12 could be induced by the digenic transmission of the SEMA7A and DUSP6 variants or a monogenic inheritance involving only the SEMA7A VUS if further functional assays allow its reclassification into pathogenic. Our findings confirm that homozygous loss-of-function genetic variations are insufficient to cause KS, and that oligogenism is most likely the main transmission mode involved in Congenital Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

    Mutations in CDC14A, Encoding a Protein Phosphatase Involved in Hair Cell Ciliogenesis, Cause Autosomal-Recessive Severe to Profound Deafness

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    International audienceBy genetic linkage analysis in a large consanguineous Iranian family with eleven individuals affected by severe to profound congenital deafness, we were able to define a 2.8 Mb critical interval (at chromosome 1p21.2-1p21.1) for an autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic deafness locus (DFNB). Whole-exome sequencing allowed us to identify a CDC14A biallelic nonsense mutation, c.1126C>T (p.Arg376∗), which was present in the eight clinically affected individuals still alive. Subsequent screening of 115 unrelated individuals affected by severe or profound congenital deafness of unknown genetic cause led us to identify another CDC14A biallelic nonsense mutation, c.1015C>T (p.Arg339∗), in an individual originating from Mauritania. CDC14A encodes a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Immunofluorescence analysis of the protein distribution in the mouse inner ear showed a strong labeling of the hair cells’ kinocilia. By using a morpholino strategy to knockdown cdc14a in zebrafish larvae, we found that the length of the kinocilia was reduced in inner-ear hair cells. Therefore, deafness caused by loss-of-function mutations in CDC14A probably arises from a morphogenetic defect of the auditory sensory cells’ hair bundles, whose differentiation critically depends on the proper growth of their kinocilium

    Multiallelic rare variants support an oligogenic origin of sudden cardiac death in the young

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    International audienceUngeklĂ€rte plötzliche TodesfĂ€lle bei jungen Menschen sind in den meisten FĂ€llen kardiovaskulĂ€rer Natur. Struktur- und Leitungsstörungen auf Basis von kardialen Gendefekten können im Zusammenspiel dem plötzlichen Herztod zugrunde liegen. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird die klinische und ausfĂŒhrliche genetische Untersuchung einer tunesischen Familie mit plötzlichem Herztod junger Angehöriger beschrieben. Mit dem Ziel, die familiĂ€re genetische Basis des plötzlichen Herztods zu identifizieren, wurden eine Exomsequenzierung („whole exome sequencing [WES]“), ein Read-depth-copy-number-variation(CNV)-Screening und eine Segregationsanalyse durchgefĂŒhrt. Sechs Ă€ußerst seltene pathogene heterozygote Varianten in den Genen OBSCN, RYR2, DSC2, AKAP9, CACNA1C, RBM20 und eine homozygote Spleicingvariante im TECRL-Gen, die mit einem oligogenischen Vererbungsmodell vereinbar waren, wurden identifiziert. Die CNV-Analyse ergab keine ursĂ€chliche CNV im Einklang mit dem FamilienphĂ€notyp. Insgesamt deuten die Ergebnisse stark auf einen kumulativen Effekt heterozygoter Missense-Varianten als Krankheitsursache hin, wodurch sich der höhere Schweregrad der Erkrankung unter den Nachkommen erklĂ€rt. Die vorliegende Studie bestĂ€tigt erneut die KomplexitĂ€t der Vererbung des plötzlichen Herztods und unterstreicht den Nutzen der familienbasierten WES und Segregationsanalyse bei der Identifikation familienspezifischer Mutationen in verschiedenen kardialen genetischen Mechanismen.Unexplained sudden death in the young is cardiovascular in most cases. Structural and conduction defects in cardiac-related genes can conspire to underlie sudden cardiac death. Here we report a clinical investigation and an extensive genetic assessment of a Tunisian family with sudden cardiac death in young members. In order to identify the family-genetic basis of sudden cardiac death, we performed Whole Exome Sequencing (WES), read depth copy-number-variation (CNV) screening and segregation analysis. We identify 6 ultra-rare pathogenic heterozygous variants in OBSCN, RYR2, DSC2, AKAP9, CACNA1C and RBM20 genes, and one homozygous splicing variant in TECRL gene consistent with an oligogenic model of inheritance. CNV analysis did not reveal any causative CNV consistent with the family phenotype. Overall, our results are highly suggestive for a cumulative effect of heterozygous missense variants as disease causation and to account for a greater disease severity among offspring. Our study further confirms the complexity of the inheritance of sudden cardiac death and highlights the utility of family-based WES and segregation analysis in the identification of family specific mutations within different cardiac genes pathways

    A novel frameshift mutation (c.405delC) in the GJB2 gene associated with autosomal recessive hearing loss in two Tunisian families.

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    International audienceOBJECTIVES: Mutations in GJB2 are found to be responsible for 50% of congenital autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss, one of the most important mutations in this gene is the c.35delG, which is responsible for the majority of GJB2 related deafness in the Tunisian population. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular etiology of hearing loss in two Tunisian individuals. METHODS: We screened two Tunisian individuals affected by congenital, bilateral, profound, sensorineural hearing loss for mutations in GJB2 gene using PCR and direct sequencing. RESULTS: We identified a novel frameshift mutation in the GJB2 gene, the c.405delC resulting in a truncated protein (p.Tyr136Thrfs*32). It was found in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG in two non-consanguineous unrelated families from Tunisia. One patient underwent a cochlear implant at 4 years. Initial evaluations post-implantation indicate a successful cochlear implant outcome since the patient began to acquire language abilities and auditory sensation. CONCLUSIONS: With this novel GJB2 mutation, the mutational spectrum of this gene continues to broaden in our population. The occurrence of biallelic GJB2 mutations for the other deaf girl, despite the neonatal pain and hypotension due to complicated delivery, led us to confirm the importance of GJB2 screening for cochlear implant candidates regardless of the etiology of deafness in populations with a relatively high frequency of GJB2 mutation carriers

    Whole exome sequencing identifies mutations in Usher syndrome genes in profoundly deaf Tunisian patients.

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    Usher syndrome (USH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by combined deafness-blindness. It accounts for about 50% of all hereditary deafness blindness cases. Three clinical subtypes (USH1, USH2, and USH3) are described, of which USH1 is the most severe form, characterized by congenital profound deafness, constant vestibular dysfunction, and a prepubertal onset of retinitis pigmentosa. We performed whole exome sequencing in four unrelated Tunisian patients affected by apparently isolated, congenital profound deafness, with reportedly normal ocular fundus examination. Four biallelic mutations were identified in two USH1 genes: a splice acceptor site mutation, c.2283-1G>T, and a novel missense mutation, c.5434G>A (p.Glu1812Lys), in MYO7A, and two previously unreported mutations in USH1G, i.e. a frameshift mutation, c.1195_1196delAG (p.Leu399Alafs*24), and a nonsense mutation, c.52A>T (p.Lys18*). Another ophthalmological examination including optical coherence tomography actually showed the presence of retinitis pigmentosa in all the patients. Our findings provide evidence that USH is under-diagnosed in Tunisian deaf patients. Yet, early diagnosis of USH is of utmost importance because these patients should undergo cochlear implant surgery in early childhood, in anticipation of the visual loss

    Distal renal tubular acidosis in a Libyan patient: Evidence for digenic inheritance

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    Aim of the study Recent advances in understanding the underlying molecular mechanism for distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA), led to an increased attention towards the primary and the familial forms of the disease. Mutations in ATP6V1B1 and ATP6V0A4 are usually responsible for the recessive form of the disease. Mutations in gene AE1 encoding the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, usually present as dominant dRTA, but a recessive pattern has been recently described. Our objective is to identify the mutational spectrum responsible of dRTA in a consanguineous Libyan family. Materials and methods Both ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1 genes were preferentially screened in our patient. Additional whole exome sequencing (WES) in the same patient, offered a wider view on potential chromosomal rearrangements as well as the mutational spectrum of other genes involved in this disease. Results The patient is a heterozygote for two different mutations, one in each of the genes ATP6V0A4 and ATP6V1B1, while no deleterious variation was detected in the remaining genes responsible for the recessive form of dRTA. Homozygosity mapping and WES confirmed our findings and supported the hypothesis of a digenic inheritance model existing as an explanation for dRTA. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a Libyan patient with dRTA who suffered from early-onset sensorineural hearing loss, with a digenic mode of inheritance, supported by the identification of two novel mutations. This study increases the understanding of how dRTA is genetically transmitted, while offers a good outline towards the molecular diagnostics and genetic counseling for dRTA in Lybians
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