22 research outputs found

    Adherence to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

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    Background: Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) reduces breast cancer recurrence and mortality of women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors, but poor adherence remains a significant problem. The aim of this study was to analyze AET side effects and their impact on adherence to treatment. Methods: A total of 373 breast cancer patients treated with AET filled out a specific questionnaire during their follow up visits at the Breast Unit of our Centre. Results: Side effects were reported by 81% of patients, 84% of those taking tamoxifen and 80% of those taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs). The most common side effect in the tamoxifen group was hot flashes (55.6%), while in the AI group it was arthralgia (60.6%). The addition of GnRH agonists to both tamoxifen and AI significantly worsened all menopausal symptoms. Overall, 12% of patients definitively discontinued AET due to side effects, 6.4% during the first 5 years and 24% during extended therapy. Patients who had previously received chemotherapy or radiotherapy reported a significantly lower discontinuation rate. Conclusions: AET side effects represent a significant problem in breast cancer survivors leading to irregular assumption and discontinuation of therapy. Adherence to AET may be improved by trustful patient–physician communication and a good-quality care network

    Clinical, Pathological, and Prognostic Features of Male Breast Cancer: A Multicenter Study

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    Male breast cancer (BC) represents less than 1% of male tumors. Little is known about male BC characteristics, management, and survival, with many studies based on a small number of cases. Consequently, the treatment of male BC lacks specific guidelines. The aims of the study are to compare male and female breast cancer (FBC) in terms of cancer clinical and anatomopathological features and treatment approach, and to identify differences between male BC and FBC in terms of survival. Patients and methods: Data from 2006 to 2018 were retrospectively acquired. Amounts of 49 males and 680 postmenopausal females with primary non-metastatic BC who underwent breast surgery at Mauriziano Hospital or IRCCS Candiolo (TO—Italy) were included. The mean age at diagnosis for male BC was 68.6 years, and males presented a smaller tumor size than women (p p = 0.04). Comparing FBC and male BC, no differences have been identified in terms of DFS and OS, with a similar 10-year-relapse rate (12% male BC vs. 12.4% FBC). Propensity Score Matching by age, nodal status, pT, and molecular subtype had been performed and no differences in OS and DFS were seen between male BC and FBC. In conclusion, male BC and FBC have similar prognostic factors and survival outcomes. The drop-out rate of AET was higher in males, and side effects were the main reason for drug discontinuation

    Adherence to Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

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    Background: Adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET) reduces breast cancer recurrence and mortality of women with hormone-receptor-positive tumors, but poor adherence remains a significant problem. The aim of this study was to analyze AET side effects and their impact on adherence to treatment. Methods: A total of 373 breast cancer patients treated with AET filled out a specific questionnaire during their follow up visits at the Breast Unit of our Centre. Results: Side effects were reported by 81% of patients, 84% of those taking tamoxifen and 80% of those taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs). The most common side effect in the tamoxifen group was hot flashes (55.6%), while in the AI group it was arthralgia (60.6%). The addition of GnRH agonists to both tamoxifen and AI significantly worsened all menopausal symptoms. Overall, 12% of patients definitively discontinued AET due to side effects, 6.4% during the first 5 years and 24% during extended therapy. Patients who had previously received chemotherapy or radiotherapy reported a significantly lower discontinuation rate. Conclusions: AET side effects represent a significant problem in breast cancer survivors leading to irregular assumption and discontinuation of therapy. Adherence to AET may be improved by trustful patient–physician communication and a good-quality care network

    Gynecological Cancers in Lynch Syndrome: A Comparison of the Histological Features with Sporadic Cases of the General Population

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    Introduction: About 5% of endometrial cancers (ECs) are attributed to an inherited predisposition, for which Lynch syndrome (LS) accounts for the majority of cases. Women with LS have a 40–60% predicted lifetime risk of developing EC, in addition to a 40–80% lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer and other cancers. In this population, the lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer (OC) is 10–12%. Object: to compare the histopathological features of LS-associated EC and OC with sporadic cancers in order to evaluate whether there are differences in terms of age at diagnosis, site of occurrence in the uterus, histological type, stage at diagnosis, and tumor grading. Materials and methods: we compared data obtained from 96 patients with LS-associated gynecological cancers (82 with EC and 14 with OC) to a control group (CG) of 209 patients who developed sporadic EC, and a CG of 187 patients with sporadic OC. Results: The mean age at diagnosis of LS-associated EC and OC was much lower than in the control groups. In both groups with EC, the endometrioid histotype was the most frequently occurring histotype. However, among LS women there was a significantly higher incidence of clear cell tumors (11% versus 2.4% in the CG, p = 0.0001). Similar to the sporadic cancer cases, most of the LS-associated ECs presented at an early stage (89% of cases at FIGO I-II stage). In the LS group, the tumor frequently involved only the inner half of the endometrium (77% of cases, p < 0.01). In the LS group, 7.3% of ECs were localized to the lower uterine segment (LUS), whereas no cancer developed in the LUS in the CG. No serous OCs were diagnosed in the LS group (versus 45.5% in the CG, p = 0.0009). Most of the LS-associated OCs presented at an early stage (85% of cases at FIGO I-II stages, p < 0.01). Conclusion: LS-associated EC and OC seem to have peculiar features, occurring at a younger age and at an earlier stage. In LS, EC less frequently involves the outer half of the endometrium, with a more frequent occurrence in the LUS. The presence of clear cell EC was more frequently observed, whereas in OC, the predominant histotype was endometrioid

    Immunohistochemical Markers and TILs Evaluation for Endometrial Carcinoma

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    Objective: The molecular classification for endometrial cancer (EC) introduced by The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (TCGA) and the Proactive Molecular Risk Classifier for Endometrial Cancer (ProMisE) proved the existence of four molecular prognostic subtypes; however, both classifications require costly technology. We suggest a prognostic model for EC based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Study design: One hundred patients were included. We retrospectively investigated IHC prognostic parameters: mismatch repair (MMR)-deficient tumors, p53 mutation status, progesterone receptors (PgRs), and estrogen receptors (ERs). We further evaluated TILs. These parameters were related to the clinical and morphological features and to the outcome. Results: We classified tumors into three groups (IHC analysis): MMR-deficient, p53-mutated, p53 wild-type. MMR-deficient tumors had a good prognosis, p53 wild-type tumors an intermediate one, and p53-mutated tumors had the poorest outcomes. Disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were significantly better among PgR+ tumors (respectively p = 0.011 and p = 0.001) and PgR expression is an independent prognostic factor for a better DFS frommultivariate analysis (OR = 0.3; CI: 0.1–0.9; p = 0.03).No significant correlation was observed between DFS and TILs. However, among MMR-deficient tumors, the mean value of TILs was higher than among the other tumors(111 versus 71, p = 0.01) Conclusions: The prognostic model based on IHC markers could potentially be a valid and applicable alternative to the TCGA one. The PgR determination could represent an additional prognostic factor for EC

    Fractional COâ‚‚ vaginal laser for the genitourinary syndrome of menopause in breast cancer survivors.

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    Adjuvant chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can induce early iatrogenic menopause or worsen pre-existing menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors (BCS). The second most frequent menopausal symptom after hot flushes is the genitourinary syndrome (GSM). Since hormone replacement therapy is contraindicated in BCS, vaginal laser might represent a new nonhormonal option for GSM. This study aims at evaluating the effectiveness of the fractional COâ‚‚ vaginal laser for GSM in BCS compared with healthy women. This is a retrospective study on 135 postmenopausal women (45 BCS and 90 healthy women) who underwent fractional CO2 laser for GSM. Objective (VHI and VVHI) and subjective outcomes (VAS for dyspareunia and vaginal dryness and a pain questionnaire) were evaluated at baseline visit and at every follow-up visit. Subjective and objective parameters improved significantly in both groups after laser therapy. The improvement was progressive and long-lasting up to 12 months after the end of the treatment. No severe adverse events were observed during the treatment. Fractional COâ‚‚ vaginal laser induces a significant and long-lasting improvement on GSM symptoms in BCS. However, this improvement is slower than in healthy women undergoing the same treatment. Laser therapy turns out to be safe and well-tolerated

    The role of trastuzumab in patients with her2 positive small (Pt1mi/a) breast cancers, a multicenter retrospective study

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    SIMPLE SUMMARY: Treatment of small HER2+ breast cancers with adjuvant Trastuzumab is still controversial. This study aims to measure the effect of Trastuzumab in early stages of breast cancer (pT1mic/a pN0/1mi) in terms of disease recurrence and to identify which factors most affect the prognosis of small HER2+ tumors. We retrospectively selected and reviewed 100 HER2+ pT1mic-pT1a breast cancer patients with a median follow-up of 86 months. In our study the primary outcome was the disease recurrence rate, which appeared to be significantly lower among patients who received adjuvant Trastuzumab. Among the patients who did not receive adjuvant Trastuzumab, HR− HER2+ tumors showed a risk seven times higher of relapse. The results of our study indicate that adjuvant Trastuzumab reduces the risk of developing a disease recurrence even in small HER2+ tumors. Adjuvant targeted therapy should be considered in patients with HR− HER2+ tumors, the category with the highest risk of recurrence. ABSTRACT: The treatment with adjuvant Trastuzumab in patients diagnosed with HER2+ small breast cancers is controversial: limited prospective data from randomized trials is available. This study aims to measure the effect of Trastuzumab in the early stages of breast cancer (pT1mic/a pN0/1mi) in terms of disease recurrence and to identify which are the factors that most affect the prognosis of small HER2+ tumors. One hundred HER2+ pT1mic-pT1a breast cancer patients who were treated in three Turin Breast Units between January 1998 and December 2018 were retrospectively selected and reviewed. Trastuzumab was administered to 23 patients. Clinicopathological features and disease-free survival (DFS) were compared between different subgroups. The primary outcome was the disease recurrence rate. Median follow-up time was 86 months. Compared to pT1a tumors, pT1mic lesions had a higher tumor grade (84% of pT1mic vs. 55% of pT1a; p = 0.003), a higher Ki-67 index (81% vs. 46%; p = 0.007) and were more frequently hormone receptor (HR) negative (69% vs. 36%, p = 0.001). Disease recurrence rate was significantly lower among patients who received adjuvant Trastuzumab (p = 0.02), with this therapy conferring an 85% reduction in the risk of relapse (HR 0.15; p = 0.02). Among the patients who did not receive adjuvant Trastuzumab, the only factor significantly associated with an increased risk of developing a recurrence was the immunohistochemical (IHC) subtype: in fact, HR− HER2+ tumors showed a risk seven times higher of relapsing (HR 7.29; p = 0.003). Adjuvant Trastuzumab appears to reduce the risk of disease recurrence even in small HER2+ tumors. The adjuvant targeted therapy should be considered in patients with HR− HER2+ tumors since they have the highest risk of recurrence, independently from size and grade
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