3,717 research outputs found

    Ab-initio Gutzwiller method: first application to Plutonium

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    Except for small molecules, it is impossible to solve many electrons systems without imposing severe approximations. If the configuration interaction approaches (CI) or Coupled Clusters techniques \cite{FuldeBook} are applicable for molecules, their generalization for solids is difficult. For materials with a kinetic energy greater than the Coulomb interaction, calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT), associated with the local density approximation (LDA) \cite{Hohenberg64, Kohn65} give satisfying qualitative and quantitative results to describe ground state properties. These solids have weakly correlated electrons presenting extended states, like spsp materials or covalent solids. The application of this approximation to systems where the wave functions are more localized (dd or ff-states) as transition metals oxides, heavy fermions, rare earths or actinides is more questionable and can even lead to unphysical results : for example, insulating FeO and CoO are predicted to be metalic by the DFT-LDA..

    On the morphology of the electron-positron annihilation emission as seen by SPI/INTEGRAL

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    The 511 keV positron annihilation emission remains a mysterious component of the high energy emission of our Galaxy. Its study was one of the key scientific objective of the SPI spectrometer on-board the INTEGRAL satellite. In fact, a lot of observing time has been dedicated to the Galactic disk with a particular emphasis on the central region. A crucial issue in such an analysis concerns the reduction technique used to treat this huge quantity of data, and more particularly the background modeling. Our method, after validation through a variety of tests, is based on detector pattern determination per ~6 month periods, together with a normalisation variable on a few hour timescale. The Galactic bulge is detected at a level of ~70 sigma allowing more detailed investigations. The main result is that the bulge morphology can be modelled with two axisymmetric Gaussians of 3.2 deg. and 11.8 deg. FWHM and respective fluxes of 2.5 and 5.4 x 10^-4 photons/(cm^2.s^1). We found a possible shift of the bulge centre towards negative longitude at l=-0.6 +/- 0.2 degrees. In addition to the bulge, a more extended structure is detected significantly with flux ranging from 1.7 to 2.9 x10^-3 photons/(cm^2.s^1) depending on its assumed geometry (pure disk or disk plus halo). The disk emission is also found to be symmetric within the limits of the statistical errors.Comment: This paper has 12 pages and 14 figures. Accepted for publication by the Astrophysical Journa

    Hot compaction of nanocrystalline TiO2 (anatase) ceramics. Mechanisms of densification: Grain size and doping effects

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    The hot compaction of nanocrystalline TiO2 anatase powders is investigated using dilatometry. The constant rate of heating (CRH) method is applied to determine effective activation energies of the processes involved during sintering. Grain size and doping effects are studied, using dopant cations of different radius and charge: Zn2+, Al3+, Si4+, Nb5+. The results are interpreted by a mechanism including superplastic deformation and boundary diffusion. The former is predominant for small particles and low temperature, whereas the latter is more important for larger particles and higher temperature. Dopant effects on densification kinetics are discussed in view of defect chemistry

    Separation of foregrounds from cosmic microwave background observations with the MAP satellite

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    Simulated observations of a 10\dg \times 10\dg field by the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) are analysed in order to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) emission from foreground contaminants and instrumental noise and thereby determine how accurately the CMB emission can be recovered. The simulations include emission from the CMB, the kinetic and thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effects from galaxy clusters, as well as Galactic dust, free-free and synchrotron. We find that, even in the presence of these contaminating foregrounds, the CMB map is reconstructed with an rms accuracy of about 20 ÎĽ\muK per 12.6 arcmin pixel, which represents a substantial improvement as compared to the individual temperature sensitivities of the raw data channels. We also find, for the single 10\dg \times 10\dg field, that the CMB power spectrum is accurately recovered for \ell \la 600.Comment: 7 pages, 7 figures, MNRAS submitte

    Phase space gaps and ergodicity breaking in systems with long range interactions

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    We study a generalized isotropic XY-model which includes both two-spin and four-spin mean-field interactions. This model can be solved in the microcanonical ensemble. It is shown that in certain parameter regions the model exhibits gaps in the magnetization at fixed energy, resulting in ergodicity breaking. This phenomenon has previously been reported in anisotropic and discrete spin models. The entropy of the model is calculated and the microcanonical phase diagram is derived, showing the existence of first order phase transitions from the ferromagnetic to a paramagnetic disordered phase. It is found that ergodicity breaking takes place both in the ferromagnetic and the paramagnetic phases. As a consequence, the system can exhibit a stable ferromagnetic phase within the paramagnetic region, and conversely a disordered phase within the magnetically ordered region

    A review of the deep-water volute genus <i>Calliotectum</i> (Gastropoda: Volutidae)

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    Calliotectum Dall, 1890, until now a monotypic deep-water volute genus from the Eastern Pacific, is shown to be a senior synonym of Teramachia Kuroda, 1931 from the Western Pacific. Pakaurangia Finlay, 1926 (originally Thiaridae; Miocene of New Zealand) and Butonius Martin. 1933 (originally Fusinidae; Neogene of Indonesia) are new synonyms. Calliotectum has a fossil record in the Neogene of the Pacific region (Okinawa, Indonesia, New Zealand and Ecuador), with a total of 5 species. All fossil records are from deep-water facies. Seven Recent species of Calliotectum are recognised, all from deep water in tropical latitudes. Three species occur in South-East Asia and the Eastern Indian Ocean, at 200-1660 m depth. Of these, C. tibiaeforme is treated as a polytypic species, with C. johnsoni and C. dupreyae considered to be geographical forms. Calliotectum piersonorum sp. nov. and C. egregium sp. nov. are described from the South-West Pacific at 450-1060 m depth. Single species occur each in the East Pacific and in the Caribbean

    Ground-based follow up of IRAS galaxies

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    Optical, near infrared, radio continuum and HI observations were undertaken of the galaxies identified with IRAS sources in a few fields roughly of the size of a sky survey plate. Results are presented from two fields at galactic latitude +27 and +43 deg over a total area of 100 sq. deg. These regions contained 115 IRAS point sources, out of which 26 were identified with stars and 81 with faint galaxies, 10 of which were difficult to recognize on the Schmidt plates. Spectroscopy was obtained with the ESO telescopes at a resolution of about 10 A. The vast majority of galaxies have low excitation spectra dominated by low ionization lines. The spectra are typical of HII region type galaxies, however of much lower excitation that other starbursts galaxies. The importance of the reddening as determined from the H alpha/H beta ratio is stressed: the visual absorption A sub v ranges from 2 to 6 magnitudes and as a consequence the corrected L sub IR/L sub B ratios are considerably reduced if those reddenings apply to the whole galaxy

    On the Minimum Degree up to Local Complementation: Bounds and Complexity

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    The local minimum degree of a graph is the minimum degree reached by means of a series of local complementations. In this paper, we investigate on this quantity which plays an important role in quantum computation and quantum error correcting codes. First, we show that the local minimum degree of the Paley graph of order p is greater than sqrt{p} - 3/2, which is, up to our knowledge, the highest known bound on an explicit family of graphs. Probabilistic methods allows us to derive the existence of an infinite number of graphs whose local minimum degree is linear in their order with constant 0.189 for graphs in general and 0.110 for bipartite graphs. As regards the computational complexity of the decision problem associated with the local minimum degree, we show that it is NP-complete and that there exists no k-approximation algorithm for this problem for any constant k unless P = NP.Comment: 11 page

    Ensemble inequivalence, bicritical points and azeotropy for generalized Fofonoff flows

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    We present a theoretical description for the equilibrium states of a large class of models of two-dimensional and geophysical flows, in arbitrary domains. We account for the existence of ensemble inequivalence and negative specific heat in those models, for the first time using explicit computations. We give exact theoretical computation of a criteria to determine phase transition location and type. Strikingly, this criteria does not depend on the model, but only on the domain geometry. We report the first example of bicritical points and second order azeotropy in the context of systems with long range interactions.Comment: 4 pages, submitted to Phys. Rev. Let

    All sky CMB map from cosmic strings integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect

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    By actively distorting the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) over our past light cone, cosmic strings are unavoidable sources of non-Gaussianity. Developing optimal estimators able to disambiguate a string signal from the primordial type of non-Gaussianity requires calibration over synthetic full sky CMB maps, which till now had been numerically unachievable at the resolution of modern experiments. In this paper, we provide the first high resolution full sky CMB map of the temperature anisotropies induced by a network of cosmic strings since the recombination. The map has about 200 million sub-arcminute pixels in the healpix format which is the standard in use for CMB analyses (Nside=4096). This premiere required about 800,000 cpu hours; it has been generated by using a massively parallel ray tracing method piercing through a thousands of state of art Nambu-Goto cosmic string numerical simulations which pave the comoving volume between the observer and the last scattering surface. We explicitly show how this map corrects previous results derived in the flat sky approximation, while remaining completely compatible at the smallest scales.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, uses RevTeX. References added, matches published versio
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