137 research outputs found

    Perceptions des éducateurs quant à la prise de médicaments psychotropes par les adolescents placés en centres jeunesse dans la région montréalaise

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    Dans la région montréalaise, trois études de prévalence montrent que de 20 à 36 % des mineurs hébergés en centre de réadaptation reçoivent une médication psychotrope. Compte tenu du faible taux d’observance du traitement susceptible d’être remarqué chez cette clientèle suivie en contexte d’autorité, du manque de connaissances quant au rôle et aux attentes des intervenants psychosociaux lorsqu’il y a prescription, et de la valeur symbolique du médicament qui risque d’influencer le déroulement et l’issue du traitement, une étude exploratoire basée sur dix-neuf entretiens semi-directifs a été conduite. Elle vise à recueillir les perceptions des éducateurs à qui on a confié la prise en charge de jeunes placés ayant une prescription. Les résultats indiquent que, désormais, la prise de médicaments psychotropes par les adolescents s’inscrit couramment dans la démarche générale de rééducation et de relation d’aide. Les grandes attentes des éducateurs par rapport à la possibilité d’obtenir une meilleure disponibilité des jeunes sur les plans cognitif et émotionnel en témoignent. Par ailleurs, les relations entre le jeune, le médecin et l’intervenant psychosocial, mais aussi avec la famille et le groupe de pairs viennent moduler les comportements d’observance. Le souci de responsabiliser les jeunes et leurs parents apparaît constant dans le propos des éducateurs.In the Montreal area, three studies on drug use have shown that between 20 and 36% of minors housed in youth care centers receive psychotropic medication. In view of the low rate of treatment compliance likely to be observed in this group, which is subject to legal authority, as well as the lack of understanding of the role and expectations of psychosocial workers when prescriptions are issued and the symbolic value of the medication which is likely to influence both the process and the result of the treatment, an exploratory study based on 19 interviews was conducted. It was designed to record the perceptions of educators responsible for youth placed in various facilities who have a prescription. The results indicate that, issuing psychotropic medication to adolescents has become part of the general re-education and daily accompaniment approach. In view of the possibility of obtaining better results from these youth, at the cognitive and emotional levels, educators have higher expectations. Furthermore, relations between the youth, the doctor and the psychosocial worker, as well as the family and peer group tend to modify compliance behaviour. There is a constant desire expressed by the educators to make the youth and their parents more responsible.En la región montrealesa, tres estudios de prevalencia indican que del 20 al 36% de los adolescentes alojados en centro de readaptación reciben medicación psicotrópica. Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio exploratorio basado en 19 entrevistas semi-dirigidas, que tiene en cuenta el débil porcentaje de observancia del tratamiento que puede observarse entre esta clientela, cuyo seguimiento se hace en un contexto de autoridad; la falta de conocimientos en cuanto al papel y las expectativas de los educadores psicosociales cuando hay una receta médica; y el valor simbólico del medicamento, que corre el riesgo de influir en el desarrollo y el resultado del tratamiento. El estudio tiene como objetivo reunir las percepciones de los educadores a quienes se confió la gestión de los casos de los jóvenes internados a los que se les ha prescripto un medicamento. Los resultados indican que, en la actualidad, la toma de medicamentos psicotrópicos por parte de los adolescentes se inscribe habitualmente en la gestión general de la reeducación y la relación de ayuda, como lo atestigua la gran expectativa de los educadores en cuanto a la posibilidad de obtener una mejor disponibilidad de los jóvenes en el plano cognitivo y emocional. Por otra parte, las relaciones entre el joven, el médico y los educadores psicosociales, así como con la familia y el grupo de pares, modula los comportamientos de observancia. En la intención de los educadores aparece constantemente deseo de responsabilizar a los jóvenes y a sus padres

    Root production and methane dynamics: Impact of wetland functional group diversity and composition

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    *Background/Question/Methods*
The loss of biodiversity worldwide has prompted a close investigation of the link between diversity and ecosystem functions. Most experimental studies have looked at the relationship between grassland plant diversity and aboveground productivity. Less is known about other ecosystems or how diversity affects belowground processes. Our objective was to investigate the link between plant community (diversity and composition) and key belowground processes such as root biomass production and CH4 dynamics in wetland ecosystems. We hypothesized that 1) root biomass would increase with functional group diversity due to complementarity and 2) the sediment pool of CH4 would decrease with diversity due to increased CH4 oxidation facilitated by root biomass. Four plant functional groups (facultative annuals, obligate annuals, reeds and tussocks) were planted in controlled mesocosms to represent five levels of functional diversity and every combination of functional groups at each diversity level. Unplanted mesocosms served as the zero diversity treatment. At peak biomass in 2007, porewater samplers were used to extract water at 5, 15, and 25 cm. The samples were frozen prior to headspace analysis of CH4 and CO2. Porewater was also analyzed for DOC. Afterward, we took soil cores from each mesocosm at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm to determine the root biomass in each depth. 

*Results/Conclusions*
Root biomass increased with functional diversity (F 3, 71 = 2.78, P < 0.05), however only the lowest diversity treatment had significantly lower root biomass than the highest diversity level; 150.6 ± 24.94 (SE) g DW m-2 and 307.2 ± 49.9 g DW m-2, respectively. At each depth, root biomass increased with diversity (P < 0.01), and root biomass at 0-10 cm >10-20 cm >20-30 cm. The facultative annual and obligate annual functional groups had significantly less root biomass than the other functional groups and combinations (P < 0.001). Porewater concentrations of CH4 did not significantly differ between functional group combinations or diversity levels (P > 0.05). However, CH4 was positively correlated with depth (F 1, 194 =19.75, P < 0.001), CO2 concentration (F 1, 194 = 42.94, P < 0.001) and DOC (F 1,194 = 4.98, P < 0.001) and was not correlated with root biomass (P > 0.05). Since this data is from the first year of sampling following mesocosm establishment, the insignificant relationship between root biomass and CH4 in the sediment pool may indicate that the microbial processes were influenced more by starting soil conditions than plant-mediated conditions

    Neural Substrates of Spinal Sensory Integration for Reflex Control of Sympathetic Outflow: Where’s the Connection?

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    Proper adaptation to external and internal stimuli demand changes in physiology that are coordinated with motor responses. Motor responses are achieved via local circuit connections in the spinal cord and require physiological adjustments in order to be executed. Previous studies provide evidence that segmental spinal interneurons coordinate this activity. However, the identity and synaptic organization of neurons contributing to this circuitry has not been fully characterized. We hypothesize that sensory input from primary sensory afferents is integrated by local circuits that enable adaptive adjustments in sympathetic outflow through polysynaptic projections to sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPGs) in the thoracic spinal cord. We tested this hypothesis in two experiments employing viral transneuronal tracing. In the first, a recombinant strain of PRV, either PRV263 or PRV279, was injected into the rat kidney and retrograde transneuronal passage of the virus in thoracic cord was characterized. Immunocytochemical localization of viral antigens revealed a temporally organized progression of infection through SPGs into interneuron populations in Rexed laminae VII, V, IV, II and I. Retrograde transneuronal infection reproducibly identified subpopulations of neurons in each lamina and the temporal progression of infection was consistent with multiple parallel pathways from superficial lamina to SPGs. The second experiment utilized the expression of the farnesylated EYFP reporter that is expressed by PRV279. Localization of the farnesylated EYFP reporter defined the dendritic architecture of infected interneurons and also revealed patterns of axonal arborization coextensive with infected interneurons. Analysis of axons in both the longitudinal and transverse planes support the circuit identified in the first experiment. Both experiments reveal a segmental organization of interneurons with respect to regulation of SPG output and a neural network that appears to coordinate sympathetic outflow from multiple spinal cord segments

    Spatially explicit land-use and land-cover scenarios for the Great Plains of the United States

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    The Great Plains of the United States has undergone extensive land-use and land-cover change in the past 150 years, with much of the once vast native grasslands and wetlands converted to agricultural crops, and much of the unbroken prairie now heavily grazed. Future land-use change in the region could have dramatic impacts on ecological resources and processes. A scenario-based modeling framework is needed to support the analysis of potential land-use change in an uncertain future, and to mitigate potentially negative future impacts on ecosystem processes. We developed a scenario-based modeling framework to analyze potential future land-use change in the Great Plains. A unique scenario construction process, using an integrated modeling framework, historical data, workshops, and expert knowledge, was used to develop quantitative demand for future land-use change for four IPCC scenarios at the ecoregion level. The FORE-SCE model ingested the scenario information and produced spatially explicit land-use maps for the region at relatively fine spatial and thematic resolutions. Spatial modeling of the four scenarios provided spatial patterns of land-use change consistent with underlying assumptions and processes associated with each scenario. Economically oriented scenarios were characterized by significant loss of natural land covers and expansion of agricultural and urban land uses. Environmentally oriented scenarios experienced modest declines in natural land covers to slight increases. Model results were assessed for quantity and allocation disagreement between each scenario pair. In conjunction with the U.S. Geological Survey\u27s Biological Carbon Sequestration project, the scenario-based modeling framework used for the Great Plains is now being applied to the entire United States

    “When my Autism Broke”: A Qualitative Study Spotlighting Autistic Voices on Menopause

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    Autistic women often struggle with the onset of menstruation, a key transition point in the female reproductive lifespan. Presently, there is no research investigating how autistic people navigate the menopausal transition, and whether it poses additional challenges in addition to those already faced by neurotypical women. As a preliminary participatory study in this area, we conducted an online focus group with seven autistic individuals, aged 49-63 years (median=64.5 years) and assigned female at birth, to explore the state of knowledge about the menopause in autism, difficulties the menopause might bring, support that might be needed, and what questions require scientific investigation. Thematic analysis of the discussion generated three themes: 1)Lack of knowledge and understanding; 2)Cracking the mask and adaptive functioning; and 3)Finding support. Themes suggested a lack of professional knowledge, understanding and communication about menopause for autistic people, and an absence of support. Menopause was discussed as heightening pre-existing and generating new cognitive, social, emotional and sensory difficulties. This study illustrates the need for greater focus of attention towards how autistic people cope with the major life transition of menopause

    Body mass index, muscle strength and physical performance in older adults from eight cohort studies: the HALCyon programme.

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    Objective To investigate the associations of body mass index (BMI) and grip strength with objective measures of physical performance (chair rise time, walking speed and balance) including an assessment of sex differences and non-linearity. Methods Cross-sectional data from eight UK cohort studies (total N = 16 444) participating in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) research programme, ranging in age from 50 to 90+ years at the time of physical capability assessment, were used. Regression models were fitted within each study and meta-analysis methods used to pool regression coefficients across studies and to assess the extent of heterogeneity between studies. Results Higher BMI was associated with poorer performance on chair rise (N = 10 773), walking speed (N = 9 761) and standing balance (N = 13 921) tests. Higher BMI was associated with stronger grip strength in men only. Stronger grip strength was associated with better performance on all tests with a tendency for the associations to be stronger in women than men; for example, walking speed was higher by 0.43 cm/s (0.14, 0.71) more per kg in women than men. Both BMI and grip strength remained independently related with performance after mutual adjustment, but there was no evidence of effect modification. Both BMI and grip strength exhibited non-linear relations with performance; those in the lowest fifth of grip strength and highest fifth of BMI having particularly poor performance. Findings were similar when waist circumference was examined in place of BMI. Conclusion Older men and women with weak muscle strength and high BMI have considerably poorer performance than others and associations were observed even in the youngest cohort (age 53). Although causality cannot be inferred from observational cross-sectional studies, our findings suggest the likely benefit of early assessment and interventions to reduce fat mass and improve muscle strength in the prevention of future functional limitations

    Multi-ancestry genome-wide association study of gestational diabetes mellitus highlights genetic links with type 2 diabetes

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    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased risk of pregnancy complications and adverse perinatal outcomes. GDM often reoccurs and is associated with increased risk of subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (T2D). To improve our understanding of the aetiological factors and molecular processes driving the occurrence of GDM, including the extent to which these overlap with T2D pathophysiology, the GENetics of Diabetes In Pregnancy Consortium assembled genome-wide association studies of diverse ancestry in a total of 5485 women with GDM and 347 856 without GDM. Through multi-ancestry meta-analysis, we identified five loci with genome-wide significant association (P < 5 x 10(-8)) with GDM, mapping to/near MTNR1B (P = 4.3 x 10(-54)), TCF7L2 (P = 4.0 x 10(-16)), CDKAL1 (P = 1.6 x 10(-4)), CDKN2A-CDKN2B (P = 4.1 x 10(-9)) and HKDC1 (P = 2.9 x 10(-8)). Multiple lines of evidence pointed to the shared pathophysiology of GDM and T2D: (i) four of the five GDM loci (not HKDC1) have been previously reported at genome-wide significance for T2D; (ii) significant enrichment for associations with GDM at previously reported T2D loci; (iii) strong genetic correlation between GDM and T2D and (iv) enrichment of GDM associations mapping to genomic annotations in diabetes-relevant tissues and transcription factor binding sites. Mendelian randomization analyses demonstrated significant causal association (5% false discovery rate) of higher body mass index on increased GDM risk. Our results provide support for the hypothesis that GDM and T2D are part of the same underlying pathology but that, as exemplified by the HKDC1 locus, there are genetic determinants of GDM that are specific to glucose regulation in pregnancy.Peer reviewe

    Genome-wide association study of offspring birth weight in 86 577 women identifies five novel loci and highlights maternal genetic effects that are independent of fetal genetics

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    Funding Information: Researchers were funded by investment from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the European Social Fund (ESF) Convergence Programme for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly [J.T.]; European Research Council (ERC) [grant: SZ-245 50371-GLUCOSEGENES-FP7-IDEAS-ERC to T.M.F., A.R.W.], [ERC Consolidator Grant, ERC-2014-CoG-648916 to V.W.V.J.], [P.R.N.]; University of Bergen, KG Jebsen and Helse Vest [P.R.N.]; Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator Awards [A.T.H. (WT098395), M.I.M. (WT098381)]; National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Senior Investigator Award (NF-SI-0611–10219); Sir Henry Dale Fellowship (Wellcome Trust and Royal Society grant: WT104150) [R.M.F., R.N.B.]; 4-year studentship (Grant Code: WT083431MF) [R.C.R]; the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007– 2013)/ERC Grant Agreement (grant number 669545; Develop Obese) [D.A.L.]; US National Institute of Health (grant: R01 DK10324) [D.A.L, C.L.R]; Wellcome Trust GWAS grant (WT088806) [D.A.L] and NIHR Senior Investigator Award (NF-SI-0611–10196) [D.A.L]; Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Award (WT097835MF) [M.A.T.]; The Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation Non-Clinical Fellowship [J.T.]; Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Early Career Fellowship (APP1104818) [N.M.W.]; Daniel B. Burke Endowed Chair for Diabetes Research [S.F.A.G.]; UK Medical Research Council Unit grants MC_UU_12013_5 [R.C.R, L.P, S.R, C.L.R, D.M.E., D.A.L.] and MC_UU_12013_4 [D.M.E.]; Medical Research Council (grant: MR/M005070/1) [M.N.W., S.E.J.]; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT130101709) [D.M.E] and (FT110100548) [S.E.M.]; NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre (BRC); Oak Foundation Fellowship and Novo Nordisk Foundation (12955) [B.F.]; FRQS research scholar and Clinical Scientist Award by the Canadian Diabetes Association and the Maud Menten Award from the Institute of Genetics– Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) [MFH]; CIHR— Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships [C.A.]; FRQS [L.B.]; Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw–VIDI 016.136.361) [V.W.V.J.]; National Institute on Aging (R01AG29451) [J.M.M.]; 2010–2011 PRIN funds of the University of Ferrara—Holder: Prof. Guido Barbujani, Supervisor: Prof. Chiara Scapoli—and in part sponsored by the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes (EFSD) Albert Renold Travel Fellowships for Young Scientists, ‘5 per mille’ contribution assigned to the University of Ferrara, income tax return year 2009 and the ENGAGE Exchange and Mobility Program for ENGAGE training funds, ENGAGE project, grant agreement HEALTH-F4–2007-201413 [L.M.]; ESRC (RES-060–23-0011) [C.L.R.]; National Institute of Health Research ([S.D., M.I.M.], Senior Investigator Award (NF-SI-0611–10196) [D.A.L]); Australian NHMRC Fellowships Scheme (619667) [G.W.M]. For study-specific funding, please see Supplementary Material. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. Funding to pay the Open Access publication charges for this article was provided by the Charity Open Access Fund (COAF). Funding Information: We are extremely grateful to the participants and families who contributed to all of the studies and the teams of investigators involved in each one. These include interviewers, computer and laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, managers, receptionists and nurses. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource (Application numbers 7036 and 12703). For additional study-specific acknowledgements, please see Supplementary Material. Conflict of Interest statement. D.A.L. has received support from Roche Diagnostics and Medtronic for biomarker research unrelated to the work presented here. Funding Researchers were funded by investment from the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and the European Social Fund (ESF) Convergence Programme for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly [J.T.]; European Research Council (ERC) [grant: SZ-245 50371-GLUCOSEGENES-FP7-IDEAS-ERC to T.M.F., A.R.W.], [ERC Consolidator Grant, ERC-2014-CoG-648916 to V.W.V.J.], [P.R.N.]; University of Bergen, KG Jebsen and Helse Vest [P.R.N.]; Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator Awards [A.T.H. (WT098395), M.I.M. (WT098381)]; National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Senior Investigator Award (NF-SI-0611-10219); Sir Henry Dale Fellowship (Wellcome Trust and Royal Society grant: WT104150) [R.M.F., R.N.B.]; 4-year studentship (Grant Code: WT083431MF) [R.C.R]; the European Research Council under the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013)/ERC Grant Agreement (grant number 669545; Develop Obese) [D.A.L.]; US National Institute of Health (grant: R01 DK10324) [D.A.L, C.L.R]; Wellcome Trust GWAS grant (WT088806) [D.A.L] and NIHR Senior Investigator Award (NF-SI-0611-10196) [D.A.L]; Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Award (WT097835MF) [M.A.T.]; The Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation Non-Clinical Fellowship [J.T.]; Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Early Career Fellowship (APP1104818) [N.M.W.]; Daniel B. Burke Endowed Chair for Diabetes Research [S.F.A.G.]; UK Medical Research Council Unit grants MC_UU_12013_5 [R.C.R, L.P, S.R, C.L.R, D.M.E., D.A.L.] and MC_UU_12013_4 [D.M.E.]; Medical Research Council (grant: MR/M005070/1) [M.N.W., S.E.J.]; Australian Research Council Future Fellowship (FT130101709) [D.M.E] and (FT110100548) [S.E.M.]; NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre (BRC); Oak Foundation Fellowship and Novo Nordisk Foundation (12955) [B.F.]; FRQS research scholar and Clinical Scientist Award by the Canadian Diabetes Association and the Maud Menten Award from the Institute of Genetics-Canadian Institute of Health Research (CIHR) [MFH]; CIHR-Frederick Banting and Charles Best Canada Graduate Scholarships [C.A.]; FRQS [L.B.]; Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMw-VIDI 016.136.361) [V.W.V.J.]; National Institute on Aging (R01AG29451) [J.M.M.]; 2010-2011 PRIN funds of the University of Ferrara-Holder: Prof. Guido Barbujani, Supervisor: Prof. Chiara Scapoli-and in part sponsored by the European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes (EFSD) Albert Renold Travel Fellowships for Young Scientists, '5 per mille' contribution assigned to the University of Ferrara, income tax return year 2009 and the ENGAGE Exchange and Mobility Program for ENGAGE training funds, ENGAGE project, grant agreement HEALTH-F4-2007-201413 [L.M.]; ESRC (RES-060-23-0011) [C.L.R.]; National Institute of Health Research ([S.D., M.I.M.], Senior Investigator Award (NFSI-0611-10196) [D.A.L]); Australian NHMRC Fellowships Scheme (619667) [G.W.M]. For study-specific funding, please see Supplementary Material. The views expressed are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. Funding to pay the Open Access publication charges for this article was provided by the Charity Open Access Fund (COAF). Publisher Copyright: © The Author(s) 2018.Genome-wide association studies of birth weight have focused on fetal genetics, whereas relatively little is known about the role of maternal genetic variation. We aimed to identify maternal genetic variants associated with birth weight that could highlight potentially relevant maternal determinants of fetal growth. We meta-analysed data on up to 8.7 million SNPs in up to 86 577 women of European descent from the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) Consortium and the UK Biobank. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and analyses of mother-child pairs to quantify the separate maternal and fetal genetic effects. Maternal SNPs at 10 loci (MTNR1B, HMGA2, SH2B3, KCNAB1, L3MBTL3, GCK, EBF1, TCF7L2, ACTL9, CYP3A7) were associated with offspring birth weight at P<5 x 10(-8). In SEM analyses, at least 7 of the 10 associations were consistent with effects of the maternal genotype acting via the intrauterine environment, rather than via effects of shared alleles with the fetus. Variants, or correlated proxies, at many of the loci had been previously associated with adult traits, including fasting glucose (MTNR1B, GCK and TCF7L2) and sex hormone levels (CYP3A7), and one (EBF1) with gestational duration. The identified associations indicate that genetic effects on maternal glucose, cytochrome P450 activity and gestational duration, and potentially on maternal blood pressure and immune function, are relevant for fetal growth. Further characterization of these associations in mechanistic and causal analyses will enhance understanding of the potentially modifiable maternal determinants of fetal growth, with the goal of reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with low and high birth weights.Peer reviewe
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