1,810 research outputs found

    Validation of Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks for High Energy Physics Calorimeter Simulations

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    In particle physics the simulation of particle transport through detectors requires an enormous amount of computational resources, utilizing more than 50% of the resources of the CERN Worldwide Large Hadron Collider Grid. This challenge has motivated the investigation of different, faster approaches for replacing the standard Monte Carlo simulations. Deep Learning Generative Adversarial Networks are among the most promising alternatives. Previous studies showed that they achieve the necessary level of accuracy while decreasing the simulation time by orders of magnitudes. In this paper we present a newly developed neural network architecture which reproduces a three-dimensional problem employing 2D convolutional layers and we compare its performance with an earlier architecture consisting of 3D convolutional layers. The performance evaluation relies on direct comparison to Monte Carlo simulations, in terms of different physics quantities usually employed to quantify the detector response. We prove that our new neural network architecture reaches a higher level of accuracy with respect to the 3D convolutional GAN while reducing the necessary computational resources. Calorimeters are among the most expensive detectors in terms of simulation time. Therefore we focus our study on an electromagnetic calorimeter prototype with a regular highly granular geometry, as an example of future calorimeters.Comment: AAAI-MLPS 2021 Spring Symposium at Stanford Universit

    Precise Image Generation on Current Noisy Quantum Computing Devices

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    The Quantum Angle Generator (QAG) is a new full Quantum Machine Learning model designed to generate accurate images on current Noise Intermediate Scale (NISQ) Quantum devices. Variational quantum circuits form the core of the QAG model, and various circuit architectures are evaluated. In combination with the so-called MERA-upsampling architecture, the QAG model achieves excellent results, which are analyzed and evaluated in detail. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a quantum model has achieved such accurate results. To explore the robustness of the model to noise, an extensive quantum noise study is performed. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the model trained on a physical quantum device learns the noise characteristics of the hardware and generates outstanding results. It is verified that even a quantum hardware machine calibration change during training of up to 8% can be well tolerated. For demonstration, the model is employed in indispensable simulations in high energy physics required to measure particle energies and, ultimately, to discover unknown particles at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN

    Reduced Precision Strategies for Deep Learning: A High Energy Physics Generative Adversarial Network Use Case

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    Deep learning is finding its way into high energy physics by replacing traditional Monte Carlo simulations. However, deep learning still requires an excessive amount of computational resources. A promising approach to make deep learning more efficient is to quantize the parameters of the neural networks to reduced precision. Reduced precision computing is extensively used in modern deep learning and results to lower execution inference time, smaller memory footprint and less memory bandwidth. In this paper we analyse the effects of low precision inference on a complex deep generative adversarial network model. The use case which we are addressing is calorimeter detector simulations of subatomic particle interactions in accelerator based high energy physics. We employ the novel Intel low precision optimization tool (iLoT) for quantization and compare the results to the quantized model from TensorFlow Lite. In the performance benchmark we gain a speed-up of 1.73x on Intel hardware for the quantized iLoT model compared to the initial, not quantized, model. With different physics-inspired self-developed metrics, we validate that the quantized iLoT model shows a lower loss of physical accuracy in comparison to the TensorFlow Lite model.Comment: Submitted at ICPRAM 2021; from CERN openlab - Intel collaboratio

    Radio Galaxy Classification with wGAN-Supported Augmentation

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    Novel techniques are indispensable to process the flood of data from the new generation of radio telescopes. In particular, the classification of astronomical sources in images is challenging. Morphological classification of radio galaxies could be automated with deep learning models that require large sets of labelled training data. Here, we demonstrate the use of generative models, specifically Wasserstein GANs (wGAN), to generate artificial data for different classes of radio galaxies. Subsequently, we augment the training data with images from our wGAN. We find that a simple fully-connected neural network for classification can be improved significantly by including generated images into the training set.Comment: 10 pages, 6 figures; accepted to ml.astro; v2: matches published versio

    Performance studies of the final prototype for the CASTOR forward calorimeter at the CMS experiment

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    We present performance results of the final prototype for the CASTOR quartz-tungsten sampling calorimeter, to be installed in the very forward region of the CMS experiment at the LHC. The energy linearity and resolution, the uniformity, as well as the spatial resolution of the prototype to electromagnetic and hadronic showers are studied with E=E= 10--200 GeV electrons, E=E= 20--350 GeV pions, and E=E= 50, 150 GeV muons in beam tests carried out at CERN/SPS in 2007

    Quantum Computing for High-Energy Physics: State of the Art and Challenges. Summary of the QC4HEP Working Group

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    Quantum computers offer an intriguing path for a paradigmatic change of computing in the natural sciences and beyond, with the potential for achieving a so-called quantum advantage, namely a significant (in some cases exponential) speed-up of numerical simulations. The rapid development of hardware devices with various realizations of qubits enables the execution of small scale but representative applications on quantum computers. In particular, the high-energy physics community plays a pivotal role in accessing the power of quantum computing, since the field is a driving source for challenging computational problems. This concerns, on the theoretical side, the exploration of models which are very hard or even impossible to address with classical techniques and, on the experimental side, the enormous data challenge of newly emerging experiments, such as the upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider. In this roadmap paper, led by CERN, DESY and IBM, we provide the status of high-energy physics quantum computations and give examples for theoretical and experimental target benchmark applications, which can be addressed in the near future. Having the IBM 100 x 100 challenge in mind, where possible, we also provide resource estimates for the examples given using error mitigated quantum computing

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV

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    Measurements are reported of differential cross sections for the production of a W boson, which decays into a muon and a neutrino, in association with jets, as a function of several variables, including the transverse momenta (pT) and pseudorapidities of the four leading jets, the scalar sum of jet transverse momenta (HT), and the difference in azimuthal angle between the directions of each jet and the muon. The data sample of pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV was collected with the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb[superscript ‚ąí1]. The measured cross sections are compared to predictions from Monte Carlo generators, MadGraph + pythia and sherpa, and to next-to-leading-order calculations from BlackHat + sherpa. The differential cross sections are found to be in agreement with the predictions, apart from the pT distributions of the leading jets at high pT values, the distributions of the HT at high-HT and low jet multiplicity, and the distribution of the difference in azimuthal angle between the leading jet and the muon at low values.United States. Dept. of EnergyNational Science Foundation (U.S.)Alfred P. Sloan Foundatio

    Optimasi Portofolio Resiko Menggunakan Model Markowitz MVO Dikaitkan dengan Keterbatasan Manusia dalam Memprediksi Masa Depan dalam Perspektif Al-Qur`an