2,683 research outputs found

    Robustness of Highly Entangled Multi-Qubit States Under Decoherence

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    We investigate the decay of entanglement, due to decoherence, of multi-qubit systems that are initially prepared in highly (in some cases maximally) entangled states. We assume that during the decoherence processes each qubit of the system interacts with its own, independent environment. We determine, for systems with a small number of qubits and for various decoherence channels, the initial states exhibiting the most robust entanglement. We also consider a restricted version of this robustness optimization problem, only involving states equivalent under local unitary transformations to the |GHZ> state.Comment: 16 pages, 3 figures. Changes in Sec.

    Electronic Excitation Temperature Profiles in an Air Microwave Plasma Torch

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    Brachistochrone of Entanglement for Spin Chains

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    We analytically investigate the role of entanglement in time-optimal state evolution as an appli- cation of the quantum brachistochrone, a general method for obtaining the optimal time-dependent Hamiltonian for reaching a target quantum state. As a model, we treat two qubits indirectly cou- pled through an intermediate qubit that is directly controllable, which represents a typical situation in quantum information processing. We find the time-optimal unitary evolution law and quantify residual entanglement by the two-tangle between the indirectly coupled qubits, for all possible sets of initial pure quantum states of a tripartite system. The integrals of the motion of the brachistochrone are determined by fixing the minimal time at which the residual entanglement is maximized. Entan- glement plays a role for W and GHZ initial quantum states, and for the bi-separable initial state in which the indirectly coupled qubits have a nonzero value of the 2-tangle.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure

    Induction of cytotoxic T-cell response against hepatitis C virus structural antigens using a defective recombinant adenovirus

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    A replication-defective recombinant adenovirus (RAd), RAdCMV-CE1, containing core and E1 genes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) was constructed. RAdCMV-CE1 was able to express core and E1 proteins both in mice and human cells. Immunization of BALB/c mice with RAdCMV-CE1 induced a specific cytotoxic T-cell response against the two HCV proteins. This response was characterized using a panel of 60 synthetic 14- or 15-mer overlapping peptides (10 amino-acid overlap) spanning the entire sequence of these proteins. Five main epitopes were found in the core protein, four of which had been previously described either in mice or humans. One single novel epitope was found in E1. Fine mapping of this E1 determinant, showed that octamer GHRMAWDM is the minimal epitope recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). The cytotoxic T-cell response was H-2d restricted, lasted for at least 100 days, and was mediated by T cells with the classic CD4-CD8+ phenotype. This work demonstrates that replication-defective recombinant adenoviruses can efficiently express HCV proteins and are able to induce an in vivo cytotoxic T-cell response against a diversity of epitopes from HCV antigens. These vectors should be taken into consideration in the design of vaccines and also as a means to stimulate specific T-cell responses in chronic HCV carriers