107 research outputs found

    Predictors and trajectories of ED visits among patients receiving palliative home care services: Findings from a time series analysis (2013-2017)

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    Background: Current policies recommend integrating home care and palliative care to enable patients to remain at home and avoid unnecessary hospital admission and emergency department (ED) visits. The Italian health care system had implemented integrated palliative home care (IHPC) services to guarantee a comprehensive, coordinated approach across different actors and to reduce potentially avoidable ED visits. This study aimed to analyze the trajectories of ED visit rates among patients receiving IHPC in the Italian healthcare system, as well as the association between socio-demographic, health supply, and clinical factors. Methods: A pooled, cross-sectional, time series analysis was performed in a large Italian region in the period 2013-2017. Data were taken from two databases of the official Italian National Information System: Home Care Services and ED use. A clinical record is opened at the time a patient is enrolled in IHPC and closed after the last service is provided. Every such clinical record was considered as an IHPC event, and only ED visits that occurred during IHPC events were considered. Results: The 20,611 patients enrolled in IHPC during the study period contributed 23,085 IHPC events; ≥1 ED visit occurred during 6046 of these events. Neoplasms accounted for 89% of IHPC events and for 91% of ED visits. Although there were different variations in ED visit rates during the study period, a slight decline was observed for all diseases, and this decline accelerated over time (b = - 0.18, p = 0.796, 95% confidence interval [CI] = - 1.59;1.22, b-squared = - 1.25, p < 0.001, 95% CI = -1.63;-0.86). There were no significant predictors among the socio-demographic factors (sex, age, presence of a non-family caregiver, cohabitant family members, distance from ED), health supply factors (proponent of IHPC) and clinical factors (prevalent disorder at IHPC entry, clinical symptoms). Conclusion: Our results show that use of ED continues after enrollment in IHPC, but the trend of this use declines over time. As no significant predictive factors were identified, no specific interventions can be recommended on which the avoidable ED visits depend

    Emergency-department accesses in home care paediatric patients: Occurrence and risks of use in a six-year retrospective investigation in Northern Italy

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    Objective To assess the determinants of ED use in paediatric patients enrolled in an Integrated Paediatric Home Care (IPHC) program. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using administrative databases on a cohort of patients enrolled in an IPHC program between January 1st, 2012, and December 31st, 2017, in Northern Italy. ED visits that occurred during the IPHC program were considered. Data were collected considering sociodemographic, clinical and organizational variables. A multivariable stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. The dependent variable to identify possible associations was ED visit. Results A total of 463 ED visits occurred in 465 children, with an incidence rate of 1. The risk of ED visits significantly increased among children involved in the IPHC program after hospital discharge (OR 1.94). Additionally, the risk of ED visits increased significantly as the duration of IPHC increased (OR 5.80 between 101 and 200 days, to OR 7.84 between 201 and 300 days, OR 12.54 between 301 and 400 days and OR 18.67 to more than 400 days). Conclusion The overall results represent a practical perspective to contribute improving both the service quality of IPHC and reducing low acuity and improper ED use

    Factors Associated to the Onset of Mental Illness Among Hospitalized Migrants to Italy: A Chart Review

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    Migration is a complex phenomenon and mental illness among immigrants remains a major matter of concern in Italy and worldwide. 243 medical and pharmacy records of patients admitted to University of Foggia hospital between 2004 and 2018 were retrospectively screened and included in the study. Socio-demographic data and clinical characteristics of inpatients were compared in those with and without first-episode of mental illness (FEMI). Subjects (140 men, 103 women; aged 34.4 ± 10.2 years) represented 6.66 ± 3.73% of all hospitalizations in 15 years. Nearly half of them (48.5%) had emigrated from other European countries. 30.8% were diagnosed with a DSM-IV TR unspecified psychosis. 103 patients (42.3%) were in first-lifetime episodes of mental illness. Factors significantly associated with FEMI were: younger age, sex (men), immigrating from Africa, poor language proficiency, lower amount of prescribed psychotropics. Mental health among immigrants is of major concern in Italy. Our findings report on factors possibly associated to the onset of mental illness among immigrant psychiatric inpatients

    Changing prevalence of asthma in Turin school children between 1994 and 1999

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    Beckground: Asthma is a widespread chronic disorder in children and its prevalence has been on the increase in Europe. Only few studies have described the prevalence variation in respiratory symptoms in Italian regions. The aim of this study, conducted in Turin during the 1998/1999 school year, is to investigate the distribution of respiratory symptoms in a sample of Turin school children and to compare the obtained results with the findings of the SIDRIA study performed in 1994-95. Methods: the sample in study is composed of all the children attending to three elementary schools in Turin. All of the selected schools had already participated in the 94-95 ISAAC-SIDRIA study. A total of 448 pupils aged 6- 10 years received a standardised questionnaire to be filled by parents. Results: response rate is higher than 97% in all the studies. In 1999 we found that the prevalence of wheezing in the past 12 months was 7.3%. The 13.3% of children had asthma at least once in life and the 5.3% reported an attack in the last year. The comparison of our study results with the ISAACSIDRIA (1994-95) shows that the prevalence of asthma and asthma-like symptoms is rather stable among children, while the prevalence of bronchitis reveals a reduction of about 5.5%, but not statistically significant (p=0.094; 95%CI:-11.9;0.9). A considerable reduction in exposure to parents' passive smoke is shown: ΔP%=-4.7 (95%CI: -9.4;-0.1) for maternal smoking in pregnancy, ΔP%=-8.2 and -15.2, respectively for maternal and paternal smoking in the first two years of life. Conclusions: The results indicate a stable prevalence rate in asthma symptoms in children. A possible explanation of slight variation in asthma prevalence may be due to a reduced exposure to outdoor and indoor risk factors as reported in the questionnaires

    Frequency of human papillomavirus infection and genotype distribution among women with known cytological diagnosis in a Southern Italian region

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    Introduction. In the Puglia region (South Italy) about 200 new hospitalizations for cervical cancer are registered every year. The study investigated the frequency of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the genotype distribution of HPV in a sample of women with known cytology attending the outpatient clinics of four Gynecological Departments of the University of Bari over a four-year period (2005-2008). Methods. Cervical samples from 1,168 women were analyzed for the presence of HPV-DNA through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in L1 region and reverse hybridization. The cytological results were associated with HPV positivity and type-specific prevalence. Results. Overall, HPV infection was found in 355 (30.4%) women. HPV-DNA was found in 34.4% of women with a cytological diagnosis of ASCUS, in 46.8% of women with Low-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (LSIL) and in 87.0% of women with High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion (HSIL)/carcinoma. Also 16.0% of women with normal Pap smear were found to be HPV-DNA positive. The most common HPV genotype was type 16 found in 27.3% of positives, followed by type 53 (11.5%), type 66 (9.2%) and type 31 (9.0%). HPV genotype 18 was found in 6.4% of positives. Types 16 or 18 were detected in about 34% (120/355) of all infected women, in about 33% of LSIL and in 60% of HSIL/ carcinoma HPV-positive women. Among low risk (LR) genotypes, type 61 was found in 10.7% of HPV positive women, type 62 in 8.4%, type 42 in 8.1% and type CP6108 in 7.8%. Discussion and conclusions. The findings of the study give evidence that HPV infection is frequent in the studied cohort of women. The most widespread genotypes found were 16 and 53. These data may represent a benchmark for future evaluation after the recent introduction of vaccination against HPV in 12-year-old girls

    Well-being in 15-year-old adolescents: a matter of relationship with school

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    Background Psychosomatic health complaints are significant indicators of adolescent well-being. The aim of this study is to describe the full set of interactions between health complaints and the presence of subjective resources, represented by the quality of relationships with parents and peers and by a positive school perception, in a population of 15-year-old adolescents. Smoking and alcohol consumption were also included in the analyses. Methods Bayesian networks were built for males and females separately, in order to understand the interactions among all considered variables in a representative sample of 16 018 Italian adolescents participating in the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey 2009–10. Results The resulting networks show that school is the crucial node linking adolescents’ well-being with parents and peer relationships, as well as with smoking and alcohol consumption. Conclusions Adolescents' well-being, as well as the prevalence of typical risk behaviours, such as smoking and alcohol consumption, is mediated by the adolescents' academic stress. Therefore, public health interventions, to be effective, should consider addressing the school environment by making it a more inclusive environment promoting critical thinking and sense of belonging rather than just focusing on personal behaviours

    Associations between perceived social and physical environmental variables and physical activity and screen time among adolescents in four European countries

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    The study was supported from European Regional Development Fund-Project “Effective Use of Social Research Studies for Practice” (No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_025/0007294) and the Czech Science Foundation under reg. No. 18-24977S.Objectives: Associations between the perceived social and physical environment and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time (ST) were examined among adolescents in four European countries. Methods: Representative samples were surveyed with standardised methodologies. Associations between environmental variables and meeting MVPA recommendations and tertiles of ST were tested in gender-specific logistic regression models. Moderation by country and country-specific relationships were also examined. Results: The most consistent findings across countries were found for the significant associations between neighbourhood social environment and MVPA in both boys and girls. Significant associations with the physical environment varied more between countries and by gender. The most consistent negative associations with ST were found for the social environmental variable of having parental rules for spending time outside the home. Conclusions: The present findings provided evidence for the generalisability of the associations between environmental correlates and MVPA across four European countries. The findings show clear differences in correlates for MVPA and ST. Further research is needed to better understand the unique aspects of the social and physical environment which explain each of the two behaviours.PostprintPeer reviewe
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