35 research outputs found

    Hazai ny√°rak popul√°ci√≥genetikai √©s √©lettani vizsg√°lata az erd√©szeti c√©l√ļ felhaszn√°l√°s fejleszt√©se c√©lj√°b√≥l = Population genetic and physiological investigation on native poplars for development of silvicultural application

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    A p√°ly√°zati munka sor√°n 11 t√°jegys√©g 32 popul√°ci√≥j√°ban jel√∂lt√ľnk ki feh√©r, rezgŇĎ √©s sz√ľrke ny√°r mintaf√°kat. A mint√°zott 931 egyedbŇĎl 409-et vontunk be a genetikai vizsg√°latokba. Az elv√©gzett RAPD, PCR-RFLP √©s SSR vizsg√°latok sor√°n meg√°llap√≠tottuk, hogy a kiv√°lasztott markerek alkalmasak az alapfajok egyedeinek taxon√≥mia elk√ľl√∂n√≠t√©s√©re, az SSR vizsg√°lat pedig a hibridiz√°lts√°g m√©rt√©k√©nek meg√°llap√≠t√°s√°ra a sz√ľrke ny√°r eset√©ben. Az egyes popul√°ci√≥k genetikai diverzit√°s√°t kifejezŇĎ mutat√≥inak √∂sszevet√©se sor√°n meg√°llap√≠tottuk, hogy az alapfajok azon popul√°ci√≥i mutatj√°k a legmagasabb v√°ltozatoss√°got, amelyek az √∂kol√≥giai szempontb√≥l a faj optim√°lishoz k√∂zelebb √°ll√≥ termŇĎhelyein tal√°lhat√≥k. A molekul√°ris variancia forr√°sa valamennyi vizsg√°lati metodika eset√©ben a popul√°ci√≥kon bel√ľli v√°ltozatoss√°gra volt d√∂ntŇĎ m√©rt√©kben visszavezethetŇĎ. Az √∂sszehasonl√≠t√≥ n√∂v√©ny√©lettani vizsg√°latok c√©lja n√©gy ny√°r faj elt√©rŇĎ gy√∂keresed√©si hajlam√°nak a h√°tter√©ben √°ll√≥ okok √©s azok lehets√©ges befoly√°sol√°s√°nak a meg√°llap√≠t√°sa volt. A kl√≥nok k√∂z√∂tt a nem-struktur√°lis sz√©nhidr√°ttartalomban elt√©r√©s nem mutatkozott, nem befoly√°solta a gy√∂keresed√©st a dugv√°nyok eredeti helyzete √©s vastags√°ga sem. Az alkalmazott auxin kezel√©sek a gy√∂keresed√©st nem fokozt√°k, az auxin transzport g√°tl√°sa viszont jelentŇĎsen cs√∂kkentette. Pozit√≠v hat√°st az etil√©nszint√©zis fokoz√°s√°val √©rt√ľnk el. Az eredm√©nyek alapj√°n a ny√°r fajok k√∂z√∂tti gy√∂keresed√©si k√ľl√∂nbs√©g az elt√©rŇĎ etil√©n szintre vezethetŇĎ vissza. | In the frame of the research project 32 populations in 11 regions of Hungary were mapped during the last 4 years in order to inventory the genetic diversity of white poplar, trembling aspen and grey poplar. 409 individual out of the 931 trees sampled were analysed using RAPD, PCR-RFLP and SSR markers. We were able to distinguish between the three species with all the three marker types and the proportion of parent species in grey poplar individuals were also detected. Diversity indices showed the highest values in the populations which grow on ecologically optimal habitats. The Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) signed moderate variance among regions and relatively high proportion of diversity within populations. The objectives of our comparative physiological investigation on four poplar species were to determine the reasons for their different adventitious rooting abilities and to try to improve them. There were no significant differences in non-structural carbohydrate contents among the clones, and had no effect of the original position and diameter of cuttings on rooting. Root formation could not be enhanced by the applied auxin treatments however it was remarkably reduced by the inhibition of auxin transport. Enhancement in rooting could be only achieved by the increase of ethylene synthesis, accordingly the difference in rooting ability of poplar species can be attributed to the different ethylene level of cuttings

    The Challenge of Mobilizing the Unused Wood Stock Reserve to Foster a Sustainable and Prosperous Hungarian Forest Industry

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    Woody biomass is a key raw material of the circular bioeconomy, and its use can contribute considerably to achieving sustainability goals and carbon neutrality. The use of timber can foster climate change mitigation through long-term carbon storage and through the substitution of fossil products and fossil fuels. Sustainable forest management is meant to balance the contradictory goals of economic efficiency and nature conservation with careful planning and foresight. Consequently, it is important to assess the amount of timber that can be harvested without compromising sustainability. In our study, we examined the amount of wood stock accumulated in overmature stands in Hungary. Overmature stands are defined as those stands where the actual age of the stand is over its cutting age prescribed by the Forest Authority. 11.5 % of the standing volume in Hungary is overmature, and the wood stock of overmature stands has increased by more than 250 % in the last 40 y. Our results point out that a significant surplus of timber ripe for cutting is stored in overmature stands. The importance of this unused wood stock reserve is enormous, as it is a basis for meeting the growing timber demand in a sustainable way. In our study, we present the most important characteristics of the overmature black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), which stands as a representative example. The authors conclude that the mobilization of the unused wood stock reserve and the utilization of the additional harvest possibility will be among the most important challenges of the Hungarian forest industry in the upcoming decades. The harvesting potential could be unlocked by professional integration and technical assistance provided to forest managers and wood industry enterprises based on GIS applications. Geographically explicit information on the amount and value of wood stocks available for harvest could be a basis for creating a new type of entrepreneurial culture and new ways of providing forest-related services

    The Re-parametrization of the DAS Model Based on 2016-2021 Data of the National Forestry Database: New Results on Cutting Age Distributions = A DAS modell √ļjra param√©terez√©se az Orsz√°gos ErdŇĎ√°llom√°ny Adatt√°r 2016-2021 k√∂z√∂tti adatainak alapj√°n: a v√°g√°skor eloszl√°sokra vonatkoz√≥ √ļj eredm√©nyek

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    This paper presents the DAS forest model (Distributions Applied on Stands model), a forest stand-based model suitable for projecting standing volume, increment, harvest, and carbon sequestration on the stand, regional, or country levels. The forest subcompartment is the modelling unit of the DAS model, which uses National Forestry Database (NFD) data, including geospatial data. The model is suitable for further processing spatially explicit input parameters such as climate change forecasts. The model output is also georeferenced and can be further processed using GIS software. The model handles the data of approximately 600,000 forest subcompartments. Data on tree species, origin, age, growing stock, increment etc. of each subcompartment are stored in ‚Äútree-species rows‚ÄĚ, which are the sub-units of the model. The DAS model simultaneously processes the data of 1.2 million tree species rows and describes their development in time. It uses parameters based on the actual processes of the reference period. It also uses empiric cutting age distributions and a regeneration matrix derived from historic NFD data. The ForestLab project (TKP2021-NKTA-43) is currently engaged in the re-parametrization of the model based on 2016‚Äď2021 data. This study discusses the functions of the harvesting ratio distribution in the modelling process and in determining the subcompartments selected for harvest. The paper presents the latest results regarding the 2016‚Äď2021 cutting age distributions and the preparation of the new set of species-specific and yield class-specific average harvesting ratio distributions. Cikk√ľnkben bemutatjuk a DAS modellt (Distributions Applied on Stands model), mely egy erdŇĎr√©szlet alap√ļ erdŇĎ√°llom√°ny progn√≥zis modell, amely alkalmas az √©lŇĎfak√©szlet, a n√∂ved√©k, a kitermelt elŇĎ- √©s v√©ghaszn√°lati fat√©rfogat √©s a sz√©nmegk√∂t√©s elŇĎrejelz√©s√©re erdŇĎr√©szlet szinten, valamint region√°lis √©s orsz√°gos szinten is. A modell az Orsz√°gos ErdŇĎ√°llom√°ny Adatt√°r adatait haszn√°lja. Alkalmas t√©rben explicit input-param√©terek fogad√°s√°ra (pl. kl√≠mav√°ltoz√°si elŇĎrejelz√©sek) √©s az eredm√©nyek t√©rk√©pi megjelen√≠t√©sre is, √≠gy azok t√©rinformatikai szoftverekkel feldolgozhat√≥ak. A modell kb. 600 ezer erdŇĎr√©szlet √©s 1,2 milli√≥ fafajsor adatait kezeli. A szab√°lyz√≥ param√©tersorok a referencia-idŇĎszak t√©nylegesen tapasztalt folyamatain alapulnak: a modellben val√≥s v√°g√°skor-eloszl√°sok √©s val√≥s fel√ļj√≠t√°si viszonyok mŇĪk√∂dnek, azaz a modell historikus adatokb√≥l levezetett v√©ghaszn√°lati- √©s fel√ļj√≠t√°si m√°trixokat haszn√°l. A modell √ļjra param√©terez√©se a 2016-2021 idŇĎszak historikus adatainak felhaszn√°l√°s√°val jelenleg zajlik az ErdŇĎLab projekt (TKP2021-NKTA-43) keret√©ben. Cikk√ľnkben ismertetj√ľk a v√©ghaszn√°lati hozami ter√ľlet ar√°nyok eloszl√°s√°nak funkci√≥j√°t a modellez√©si folyamatban √©s a v√©ghaszn√°latra ker√ľlŇĎ ter√ľlet meghat√°roz√°s√°ban. Emellett bemutatjuk a 2016-2021-es idŇĎszak v√°g√°skor eloszl√°saira vonatkoz√≥ legfrissebb vizsg√°latunkat, √©s a modell √ļjra param√©terez√©s√©hez haszn√°lt √ļj fafaj- √©s faterm√©si oszt√°ly specifikus v√©ghaszn√°lati m√°trixok elŇĎ√°ll√≠t√°sa sor√°n elv√©gzett munk√°t

    Nemesny√°r kl√≥nok faanyagtani jellemzŇĎkh√∂z k√∂thetŇĎ g√©njeinek genetikai v√°ltozatoss√°ga = Allelic variation in candidate genes associated with wood properties of cultivated poplars

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    A nemesny√°rak kiemelkedŇĎ gazdas√°gi jelentŇĎs√©ggel b√≠rnak. A bemutatott vizsg√°lat legfŇĎbb c√©lja egy olyan kutat√°si metodika ismertet√©se, amely a faanyag tulajdons√°gai√©rt felelŇĎs kulcsenzimek k√≥dol√≥ r√©gi√≥inak azonos√≠t√°s√°b√≥l indul ki, bemutatva a genomikai alapokra helyezett nemes√≠t√©si technol√≥gi√°kban rejlŇĎ lehetŇĎs√©geket. A vizsg√°latunk elsŇĎ szakasz√°ban 24 k√ľl√∂nb√∂zŇĎ, a faanyagk√©pzŇĎd√©s szempontj√°b√≥l relev√°ns enzim k√≥dol√≥ r√©gi√≥j√°ra tervezt√ľnk primerp√°rokat. √Ėsszesen 55 saj√°t fejleszt√©sŇĪ primerp√°rt tesztelt√ľnk, 47,27%-os sikeress√©ggel. Ezut√°n nyolc enzimet v√°lasztottunk ki r√©szletesebb elemz√©sre h√©t ny√°rfaj √©s 11 hibrid kl√≥n bevon√°s√°val, √∂sszesen 23 ny√°r genot√≠pus vizsg√°lata r√©v√©n. A kiv√°lasztott enzimek egy r√©sze a lignifik√°ci√≥ folyamat√°ban vesz r√©szt (COMT, CCoAOMT, SAMS), egy m√°sik csoport a K+-f√ľggŇĎ xylogenezis sor√°n t√∂lt be kulcsszerepet (Kt, ptk2, SKOR), m√≠g a harmadik csoport (endo-1,4-b-xylanase, Araf-ase) a mikrofibrilla sz√∂g alakul√°s√°hoz k√∂thetŇĎ. A sikeresen amplifik√°lt √©s azonos√≠tott 13 markerr√©gi√≥ r√©v√©n √∂sszesen 188 szekvenci√°t elemezt√ľnk √©s 90 SNP-t azonos√≠tottunk. √Črt√©kelt√ľk a polimorf helyek sz√°m√°t, a nukleotid diverzit√°st, az inszerci√≥k/del√©ci√≥k sz√°m√°t, az SNP-k t√≠pus√°t, a rekombin√°ci√≥s esem√©nyek minim√°lis sz√°m√°t, illetve azonos√≠tottuk a konzervat√≠v szakaszokat. Eredm√©nyeink bemutat√°sa sor√°n r√©szletesen t√°rgyaljuk a vizsg√°latban rejlŇĎ alkalmaz√°si lehetŇĎs√©geket

    Review of investigation of variability of nad1 gene intron B/C of mitochondrial genome in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

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    Background and Purpose: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the most extensively distributed pine, covering the whole Eurasian continent. The detection of genetic variability of Scots pine is of greate importance from the evolutionary point of view as well as for genetic conservation. Mitochondrial genome in Scots pine is maternally inherited and dispersed through seeds. Molecular studies have indicated high genetic diversity in Scots pine genome, allowing the detection of variation between and within population. Mitochondrial genome possesses variable regions in the gene encoded NADH dehydrogenase. The variable region is nad1 B/C intron. The different haplotypes of nad1 B/C intron allowed confirming the Iberian refugia in Holoecen and confirming the genetic diversity between different stands of Scots pine in Poland. The purpose of this study was to find out the genetic variability of nad1 B/C intron in two International Scots pine provenance experiments and native Scots pine provenance in Croatia in order to detect multiple origin and haplotype variation between provenances. Material and Methods: The samples of Scots pine were taken from two International experiments of provenances, one established in Croatia (22 provenances) and the other established in Hungary (20 provenances) and Croatian native provenance (Forest office Vrhovine, Forest administration Gospińá). The samples of needles were collected from randomly chosen trees of each provenance. Eight samples per provenance were collected for haplotype analyses. DNA was extracted and amplified with specific primers for nad1 B/C intron of the mitochondrial DNA. PCR products were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis on the bioanalyzer Agilent 2100. Results and Conclusion: We investigated samples from 42 provenances of Scots pine that originated from a broad range in Eurasia and were included in two international provenance experiments, and samples from native Croatian population. A total of 344 individual trees of Scots pine were analyzed. The datawere analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and by capillary electrophoresis. We did not detect variability in mitochondrial nad1 B/C region in analyzed samples. All analyzed samples were haplotype a. Based on our data, we could conclude that none of the tested samples originated from the Iberian glacial refugia. All tested samples could have the origin in glacial refugia placed in Mediterranean, Balkan region or in the northeastern Europe. More variable region of the nuclear DNA and themitochondrial DNA should be tested on a greater number of samples to obtain more informative data

    Review of investigation of variability of nad1 gene intron B/C of mitochondrial genome in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.)

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    Background and Purpose: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is the most extensively distributed pine, covering the whole Eurasian continent. The detection of genetic variability of Scots pine is of greate importance from the evolutionary point of view as well as for genetic conservation. Mitochondrial genome in Scots pine is maternally inherited and dispersed through seeds. Molecular studies have indicated high genetic diversity in Scots pine genome, allowing the detection of variation between and within population. Mitochondrial genome possesses variable regions in the gene encoded NADH dehydrogenase. The variable region is nad1 B/C intron. The different haplotypes of nad1 B/C intron allowed confirming the Iberian refugia in Holoecen and confirming the genetic diversity between different stands of Scots pine in Poland. The purpose of this study was to find out the genetic variability of nad1 B/C intron in two International Scots pine provenance experiments and native Scots pine provenance in Croatia in order to detect multiple origin and haplotype variation between provenances. Material and Methods: The samples of Scots pine were taken from two International experiments of provenances, one established in Croatia (22 provenances) and the other established in Hungary (20 provenances) and Croatian native provenance (Forest office Vrhovine, Forest administration Gospińá). The samples of needles were collected from randomly chosen trees of each provenance. Eight samples per provenance were collected for haplotype analyses. DNA was extracted and amplified with specific primers for nad1 B/C intron of the mitochondrial DNA. PCR products were analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis on the bioanalyzer Agilent 2100. Results and Conclusion: We investigated samples from 42 provenances of Scots pine that originated from a broad range in Eurasia and were included in two international provenance experiments, and samples from native Croatian population. A total of 344 individual trees of Scots pine were analyzed. The datawere analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis and by capillary electrophoresis. We did not detect variability in mitochondrial nad1 B/C region in analyzed samples. All analyzed samples were haplotype a. Based on our data, we could conclude that none of the tested samples originated from the Iberian glacial refugia. All tested samples could have the origin in glacial refugia placed in Mediterranean, Balkan region or in the northeastern Europe. More variable region of the nuclear DNA and themitochondrial DNA should be tested on a greater number of samples to obtain more informative data

    A faipari folyamatok szénlábnyom-elemzéséhez kapcsolódó logisztikai és energiafelhasználási konverziós faktorok megadása

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    A kl√≠mav√°ltoz√°s napjaink egyik kulcsfontoss√°g√ļ probl√©mak√∂re. Kialakul√°s√°nak egyik fŇĎ oka a l√©gk√∂rbe kibocs√°tott √ľvegh√°zhat√°s√ļ g√°zok mennyis√©ge, ami jelentŇĎs r√©szben ipari-logisztikai tev√©kenys√©gbŇĎl sz√°rmazik. Az √ľvegh√°zhat√°s√ļ g√°zok k√∂z√ľl a legfontosabb √©s egyben az egyik leggyakoribb a sz√©n-dioxid. A kl√≠mav√°ltoz√°s hat√°sainak cs√∂kkent√©se √©rdek√©ben, teh√°t ismerni kell a sz√©n-dioxid keletkez√©s√©nek helyeit, mennyis√©g√©t √©s a k√∂rnyezetre gyakorolt hat√°sait. A kutat√°s c√©lja a faipari folyamatok sz√©nl√°bnyom-meghat√°roz√°s√°t szolg√°l√≥ √ļn. konverzi√≥s faktorok megad√°sa, majd egy egys√©gesen alkalmazhat√≥ sz√°m√≠t√°si m√≥dszertan kidolgoz√°sa. A szerzŇĎk az irodalmi kutat√≥munka sor√°n vizsg√°lt√°k a k√∂z√ļti sz√°ll√≠t√°sb√≥l √©s a faipari v√°llalatok villamos-, √©s hŇĎfelhaszn√°l√°s√°b√≥l sz√°rmaz√≥ sz√©n-dioxid-kibocs√°t√°sokat, majd megadt√°k az ezeket jellemzŇĎ konverzi√≥s faktorokat sz√©n-dioxid-egyenr√©t√©kben (CO2e) kifejezve. A bemutatott m√≥dszertan a gyakorlat sz√°m√°ra adapt√°lhat√≥ √©s hozz√°j√°rul a v√°llalati sz√©n-dioxidkibocs√°t√°s szisztematikus √©s tudom√°nyos alapokon nyugv√≥ meghat√°roz√°s√°hoz
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