1,787 research outputs found

    The CMS ECAL Laser Monitoring System

    Get PDF
    The CMS detector at LHC will be equipped with a high precision lead tungstate electromagnetic calorimeter. To ensure the stability of the calorimetric response at a level of a few per mille, every channel of the detector is monitored with a laser system. This system allows to correct for fluctuations in the detector response with high precision, in particular the expected radiation induced changes of the crystal transparency, which are on the level of several per cent at nominal luminosity. Here we report results from long term tests of the system on fully equipped supermodules of the CMS ECAL which are performed after the final step of the construction but before insertion of the modules in CMS. The in‐situ monitoring strategy for the CMS ECAL is discussed in detail and the performance of the full monitoring procedure as achieved in the test beam is illustrated

    Timing performance of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter and prospects for the future

    Get PDF
    The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is made of 75,848 scintillating lead tungstate crystals arranged in a barrel and two endcaps. The scintillation light is read out by avalanche photodiodes in the barrel and vacuum phototriodes in the endcaps, at which point the scintillation pulse is amplified and sampled at 40 MHz by the on-detector electronics. The fast signal from the crystal scintillation enables energy as well as timing measurements from the data collected in proton-proton collisions with high energy electrons and photons. The single-channel time resolution of ECAL measured at beam tests for high energy showers is better than 100 ps. The timing resolution achieved with the data collected in proton-proton collisions at the LHC is discussed. We present how precision timing is used in current physics measurements and discuss studies of subtle calorimetric effects, such as the timing response of different crystals belonging to the same electromagnetic shower. In addition, we present prospects for the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), where we expect an average of 140 concurrent interactions per bunch crossing (pile-up). We discuss studies on how precision time information could be exploited for pileup mitigation and for the assignment of the collision vertex for photons. In this respect, a detailed understanding of the timing performance and of the limiting factors in time resolution are areas of ongoing studies

    Performance of the Monitoring Light Source for the CMS Lead Tungstate Crystal Calorimeter

    Get PDF
    Light monitoring will play a crucial role in maintaining energy resolution for the CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter at LHC. In the last several years, a laser based monitoring light source was designed and constructed at Caltech, and was installed and commissioned at CERN. This paper presents the design of the CMS ECAL monitoring light source and its performance during beam tests. Issues related to the monitoring precision are discussed

    The CMS ECAL Laser Monitoring System

    Get PDF

    Time-based vertex reconstruction in the Compact Muon Solenoid

    Get PDF
    The Phase-II upgrades to the Large Hadron Collider will introduce a variety of new measurement devices to the CMS, including the High-Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL). The increase in luminosity from these upgrades will also have the undesired side effect of vastly increasing pileup to a level at which the current machine learning vertex reconstruction (vertexing) algorithms cease to be effective. This will necessitate the development of further vertexing algorithms. Using high precision timing measurements from simulated events in the HGCAL, we design a vertex reconstruction algorithm that requires only the spatiotemporal arrival coordinates to reconstruct the interaction vertex of a collision with sub-millimeter resolution. We also analyse how particle energy and simulated time smearing affect this resolution and we apply this algorithm to more realistic H->γγ sets. To do this, we implement a set of filters to remove poorly-reconstructed events and introduce a new algorithm capable of reconstructing interaction vertices given the pointing data and arrival data of a single cluster. Progress on this work was ultimately hindered by extensive errors in the clustering algorithms used the generation of the datasets; should these errors be resolved, further work would include integration with tracker information and the application of these algorithms to high-pileup scenarios and QCD jets

    Implementation of a Software Feedback Control for the CMS Monitoring Lasers

    Get PDF
    Light monitoring will play a crucial role in maintaining energy resolution for the CMS lead tungstate crystal calorimeter in situ at LHC. Since 2003, a laser based monitoring system in its final design has been installed and used in beam tests at CERN. While the stability of the laser pulse energy and FWHM width, measured in 24 hours, is at 3% level, a long term degradation and a drift of the laser pulse center timing at 2 ns/day were observed. The degradation and drift were caused by the aging of the DC Kr lamp used to pump the Nd:YLF laser, and would affect the monitoring precision. This paper presents the design and implementation of a software feedback control which stabilizes laser pulse energy, width and timing by trimming the Nd:YLF laser pumping current. For laser runs lasted for more than 650 hours a stability of pulse energy and FWHM width at 3% level and a pulse timing jitter at 2 ns have been achieved when the laser pulse center timing is used as the feedback parameter

    Calorimeters for Precision Timing Measurements in High Energy Physics

    Get PDF
    Current and future high energy physics particle colliders are capable to provide instantaneous luminosities of 1034 cm^(-2)s^(-1) and above. The high center of mass energy, the large number of simultaneous collision of beam particles in the experiments and the very high repetition rates of the collision events pose huge challenges. They result in extremely high particle fluxes, causing very high occupancies in the particle physics detectors operating at these machines. To reconstruct the physics events, the detectors have to make as much information as possible available on the final state particles. We discuss how timing information with a precision of around 10 ps and below can aid the reconstruction of the physics events under such challenging conditions. High energy photons play a crucial role in this context. About one third of the particle flux originating from high energy hadron collisions is detected as photons, stemming from the decays of neutral mesons. In addition, many key physics signatures under study are identified by high energy photons in the final state. They pose a particular challenge in that they can only be detected once they convert in the detector material. The particular challenge in measuring the time of arrival of a high energy photon lies in the stochastic component of the distance to the initial conversion and the size of the electromagnetic shower. They extend spatially over distances which propagation times of the initial photon and the subsequent electromagnetic shower which are large compared to the desired precision. We present studies and measurements from test beams and a cosmic muon test stand for calorimeter based timing measurements to explore the ultimate timing precision achievable for high energy photons of 10 GeV and above. We put particular focus on techniques to measure the timing with a precision of about 10 ps in association with the energy of the photon. For calorimeters utilizing scintillating materials and light guiding components, the propagation speed of the scintillation light in the calorimeter is important. We present studies and measurements of the propagation speed on a range of detector geometries. Finally, possible applications of precision timing in future high energy physics experiments are discussed

    Implementation of a Software Feedback Control for the CMS Monitoring Lasers

    Full text link

    Implementation of a Software Feedback Control for the CMS Monitoring Lasers

    Get PDF
    Light monitoring will play a crucial role in maintaining the energy resolution of the CMS lead tungstate crystal electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) in situ at LHC. Since 2001, a laser based monitoring system has been used in the CMS ECAL beam tests at CERN. While the stability of the laser pulse energy and width, measured in 24 hours, is at a level of 3%, a long term degradation of both the laser pulse energy and the width were observed, as well as a drift of the laser pulse center timing at 2 ns/day. This degradation and drift, caused by the natural aging of the DC Kr lamp, would affect respectively the monitoring precision and the synchronization between the laser pulse and the ECAL ADC clock. This paper presents a design and implementation of a software feedback control which stabilizes the laser pulse energy, width and timing. With the software feedback implemented, a stability of the laser pulse energy and width at 3% level and a pulse timing jitter at 2 ns were observed in laser runs lasted for more than 3 months. The 0.5% energy resolution of the CMS PbWO4 crystal ECAL is maintained after applying the laser monitoring corrections in a beam irradiation test
    corecore