5 research outputs found

    FIRB "SQUARE" project: nano-structured sensors for the detection of the polluting in engine exhaust gases and for indoor air quality monitoring

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    The present work is a final dissemination of activities carried out and main results obtained in the national founded project Firb "Square". The project is leaded by Centro Ricerche Fiat and it involves the most qualified national public Research Institutes and Universities active in the fields of nanomaterials synthesis, nanotechnology and gas sensors development

    Very high energy gamma-ray observation of the peculiar transient event Swift J1644+57 with the MAGIC telescopes and AGILE

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    Context. On March 28, 2011, the BAT instrument on board the Swift satellite detected a new transient event that in the very beginning was classified as a gamma ray burst (GRB). However, the unusual X-ray flaring activity observed from a few hours up to days after the onset of the event made a different nature seem to be more likely. The long-lasting activity in the X-ray band, followed by a delayed brightening of the source in infrared and radio activity, suggested that it is better interpreted as a tidal disruption event that triggered a dormant black hole in the nucleus of the host galaxy and generated an outflowing jet of relativistic matter. Aims. Detecting a very high energy emission component from such a peculiar object would be enable us to constrain the dynamic of the emission processes and the jet model by providing information on the Doppler factor of the relativistic ejecta. Methods. The MAGIC telescopes observed the peculiar source Swift J1644+57 during the flaring phase, searching for gamma-ray emission at very-high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV), starting observations nearly 2.5 days after the trigger time. MAGIC collected a total of 28 h of data during 12 nights. The source was observed in wobble mode during dark time at a mean zenith angle of 35 degrees. Data were reduced using a new image-cleaning algorithm, the so-called sum-cleaning, which guarantees a better noise suppression and a lower energy threshold than the standard analysis procedure. Results. No clear evidence for emission above the energy threshold of 100 GeV was found. MAGIC observations permit one to constrain the emission from the source down to 100 GeV, which favors models that explain the observed lower energy variable emission. Data analysis of simultaneous observations from AGILE, Fermi and VERITAS also provide negative detection, which additionally constrain the self-Compton emission component


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    The giant radio galaxy M 87 with its proximity (16 Mpc), famous jet, and very massive black hole ((3-6) x 10(9) M-circle dot) provides a unique opportunity to investigate the origin of very high energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission generated in relativistic outflows and the surroundings of supermassive black holes. M 87 has been established as a VHE gamma-ray emitter since 2006. The VHE gamma-ray emission displays strong variability on timescales as short as a day. In this paper, results from a joint VHE monitoring campaign on M 87 by the MAGIC and VERITAS instruments in 2010 are reported. During the campaign, a flare at VHE was detected triggering further observations at VHE (H.E.S.S.), X-rays (Chandra), and radio (43 GHz Very Long Baseline Array, VLBA). The excellent sampling of the VHE gamma-ray light curve enables one to derive a precise temporal characterization of the flare: the single, isolated flare is well described by a two-sided exponential function with significantly different flux rise and decay times of tau(rise)(d) = (1.69 +/- 0.30) days and tau(decay)(d) = (0.611 +/- 0.080) days, respectively. While the overall variability pattern of the 2010 flare appears somewhat different from that of previous VHE flares in 2005 and 2008, they share very similar timescales (similar to day), peak fluxes (Phi(>0.35 TeV) similar or equal to (1-3) x 10(-11) photons cm(-2) s(-1)), and VHE spectra. VLBA radio observations of 43 GHz of the inner jet regions indicate no enhanced flux in 2010 in contrast to observations in 2008, where an increase of the radio flux of the innermost core regions coincided with a VHE flare. On the other hand, Chandra X-ray observations taken similar to 3 days after the peak of the VHE gamma-ray emission reveal an enhanced flux from the core (flux increased by factor similar to 2; variability timescale <2 days). The long-term (2001-2010) multi-wavelength (MWL) light curve of M 87, spanning from radio to VHE and including data from Hubble Space Telescope, Liverpool Telescope, Very Large Array, and European VLBI Network, is used to further investigate the origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission. No unique, common MWL signature of the three VHE flares has been identified. In the outer kiloparsec jet region, in particular in HST-1, no enhanced MWL activity was detected in 2008 and 2010, disfavoring it as the origin of the VHE flares during these years. Shortly after two of the three flares (2008 and 2010), the X-ray core was observed to be at a higher flux level than its characteristic range (determined from more than 60 monitoring observations: 2002-2009). In 2005, the strong flux dominance of HST-1 could have suppressed the detection of such a feature. Published models for VHE gamma-ray emission from M 87 are reviewed in the light of the new data