1,099 research outputs found

    Ritmos de vida : as joaninhas como caso de estudo.

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    A secção Biologia é coordenada pelo Professor Universitário Armindo Rodrigues.As características da presa actuam como constrangimentos ecológicos, favorecendo a evolução de diferentes histórias de vida no mundo das joaninhas

    The Responsibility of Transnational Corporations in the Realization of Children’s Rights

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    Transnational Corporations (TNCs), especially those operating in developing countries, have enormous socio-economic power‚ÄĒ sometimes more than states. Many TNCs seek poor and unregulated markets, employing cheap, underage and fragile children, so they can create an economic competitive advantage and meet increasing international marketing demands. While many of them bring business and prosperity to a region, the damages can outweigh these benefits they perpetuate when behaving irresponsibly - occasionally irreparably - detrimentally impacting on children‚Äôs enjoyment of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. The problem is exacerbated when national governments are unable or unwilling to regulate TNCs‚Äô operations. It shall be argued that despite the private legal status of TNCs, they are subjected to human rights obligations because some forms of exploitative child labor has become universally condemned and thus possess jus cogens status. The analysis shows that there is no deficiency within international human right standards regarding child labor and these maybe interpreted as giving direct obligations to TNCs to respect, protect and fulfill children‚Äôs rights. The rising numbers of exploitative child labor, however, raises serious doubts about the effectiveness of those standards to adequately regulate powerful TNCs, which are not limited to concepts of territorial sovereignty. The results of the research depicts the desperate need for a renewed international legal framework going beyond soft law approaches, to clearly define legal obligations and methods to enforce responsibilities on: TNCs; states; other non-state actors; and the child itself, which is key to ensuring effective protection and fulfillment of children‚Äôs rights

    The Responsibility of Transnational Corporations in the Realization of Children’s Rights

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    Transnational Corporations (TNCs), especially those operating in developing countries, have enormous socio-economic power‚ÄĒ sometimes more than states. Many TNCs seek poor and unregulated markets, employing cheap, underage and fragile children, so they can create an economic competitive advantage and meet increasing international marketing demands. While many of them bring business and prosperity to a region, the damages can outweigh these benefits they perpetuate when behaving irresponsibly - occasionally irreparably - detrimentally impacting on children‚Äôs enjoyment of civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights. The problem is exacerbated when national governments are unable or unwilling to regulate TNCs‚Äô operations. It shall be argued that despite the private legal status of TNCs, they are subjected to human rights obligations because some forms of exploitative child labor has become universally condemned and thus possess jus cogens status. The analysis shows that there is no deficiency within international human right standards regarding child labor and these maybe interpreted as giving direct obligations to TNCs to respect, protect and fulfill children‚Äôs rights. The rising numbers of exploitative child labor, however, raises serious doubts about the effectiveness of those standards to adequately regulate powerful TNCs, which are not limited to concepts of territorial sovereignty. The results of the research depicts the desperate need for a renewed international legal framework going beyond soft law approaches, to clearly define legal obligations and methods to enforce responsibilities on: TNCs; states; other non-state actors; and the child itself, which is key to ensuring effective protection and fulfillment of children‚Äôs rights

    Banco CTT : managing a major strategic move

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    The main goal of the present dissertation is to explore the concept of ‚ÄúDiversification Strategy‚ÄĚ and the main challenges of planning, implementing and managing it in the first years of operations. To address this strategy, a specific example of a Portuguese postal services‚Äô incumbent, CTT ‚Äď Correios de Portugal, S.A., that diversifies its business with the creation of a postal bank is covered. With the information on the international experience in this type of diversification and the current situation of the Portuguese retail banking sector, one can conclude that the postal bank may have the capacity to adapt to the demanding conditions due to a competitive advantage in some of the industry‚Äôs key success factors. This competitive advantage is identified when the company aligns its core competencies with the market characteristics. To preserve this benefit the company should assume a proactive role in exploring the external environment and be prepared for realignment situations. This initiative is crucial once several strategy-related, industry-related or company-related problems were identified during the analysis of the postal bank‚Äôs future. In both the short and the long run the postal bank will potentially face problems that may result in managerial changes such as acquisitions of other companies (to lower the risk exposure and gain more expertise in certain business areas), divestment in certain product lines and investment in foreign markets (to compensate the lower national revenues).O principal objetivo desta disserta√ß√£o √© explorar o conceito de ‚ÄúEstrat√©gia de Diversifica√ß√£o‚ÄĚ e os principais desafios do planeamento, implementa√ß√£o e gest√£o do mesmo, durante os primeiros anos de opera√ß√£o. Para desenvolver este tema, √© dada como exemplo a estrat√©gia de diversifica√ß√£o do operador postal hist√≥rico CTT ‚Äď Correios de Portugal, S.A. na cria√ß√£o do banco postal. Combinando a informa√ß√£o da experi√™ncia internacional neste tipo de diversifica√ß√£o com a situa√ß√£o atual do sector da banca de retalho em Portugal, √© poss√≠vel concluir que, devido √† vantagem competitiva em alguns dos factores cr√≠ticos de sucesso nesta ind√ļstria, o banco postal poder√° ter capacidade para se adaptar √†s dif√≠ceis condi√ß√Ķes do mesmo. Esta vantagem competitiva √© identificada aquando do alinhamento das compet√™ncias centrais da empresa com as caracter√≠sticas do mercado. Para conservar esta vantagem, a empresa necessita de ter um papel proactivo no estudo dos fatores externos √† mesma, de forma a estar preparada para situa√ß√Ķes de realinhamento. Esta √© uma iniciativa muito importante, uma vez que foram identificados problemas relativos √† estrat√©gia de diversifica√ß√£o, √† ind√ļstria da banca de retalho e √† empresa, durante a an√°lise do futuro do banco postal. Tanto no curto como no longo prazo, o mais prov√°vel ser√° o banco postal defrontar-se com diferentes problemas, onde ser√£o necess√°rias mudan√ßas na sua gest√£o, tais como a aquisi√ß√£o de outras empresas, o desinvestimento em certos produtos e o investimento no mercado externo

    Modelação do desenvolvimento pulmonar epitelial e vascular pelos macrófagos tecidulares

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    Disserta√ß√£o de mestrado em Ci√™ncias da Sa√ļdePreterm birth is one of the causes of mortality and morbidity in childhood mainly due to lung immaturity. Glucocorticoids therapy is administered to promote lung maturation. However, recent studies showed that glucocorticoids promote several side effects, as respiratory and neurological impairments during child and mostly adulthood. The search for new therapeutic approaches is necessary to improve life quality of these individuals. Recently, tissue macrophages were described as fundamental effectors in the modulation of several organs development, mainly in processes such as branching morphogenesis and vasculature formation. In lung, it is known that they are present since the beginning of lung embryonic stage (embryonic day (E) 9.5). However, their function throughout lung development is unknown. Using a macrophage-deficiency mice model (colony stimulating factor-1 receptor knockout (Csf1r -/- ) mice) team unpublished data showed impairments in lung morphology, with decreased airspaces and increased number of mesenchyme-like cells at fetal and postnatal saccular lung developmental stage. This stage is mainly characterized by specification of the terminal sacs, and alveolar and vasculature differentiation. Accordingly, we hypothesized that tissue macrophages are involved in regulation of distal epithelium and vasculature differentiation during the saccular stage. In order to test this, we investigated lung epithelial markers and vascular mediators‚Äô transcripts and proteins expression in lung tissues from fetal and newborns Csf1r -/- mice at saccular stage. Transcripts relative expression of distal epithelium markers evidenced a disequilibrium at alveolar differentiation. Protein expression analyses of Sp-c (ATII cell marker) and Aqp5 (ATI cell marker) demonstrated a reduction in alveolar differentiation in Csf1r -/- mice at saccular stage. Since the epithelial-endothelial crosstalk is crucial to a normal lung development, vasculature was also investigated. Analysis of some vascular mediators showed an unbalance at transcript expression levels in Csf1r -/- mice lungs. Additionally, protein expression evaluation of two specific endothelial markers showed impairments in vasculature formation in most of Csf1r -/- lungs. However, vascular defects emerged later in development compared with the alveolar disruption. In summary, our data demonstrate the influence of fetal tissue macrophages in the modulation of alveolar epithelium differentiation, with consequently effects on vasculature, probably by the secretion and/or induction of specific mediators. New therapeutic approaches may rise from these tissue macrophages mediators to accelerate lung maturation.O nascimento prematuro √© uma das principais causas de mortalidade e morbilidade durante a idade infantil devido √† imaturidade pulmonar. A administra√ß√£o de glucocorticoides como terapia promove a matura√ß√£o pulmonar. No entanto, estudos recentes demonstram que a sua administra√ß√£o promove diversos feitos adversos, nomeadamente problemas respirat√≥rios e neurol√≥gicos durante uma idade infantil e principalmente na idade adulta. A procura de novas abordagens terap√™uticas √© necess√°ria de modo a melhorar a qualidade de vida destes indiv√≠duos. Recentemente, os macr√≥fagos tecidulares foram descritos como c√©lulas fundamentais na modula√ß√£o do desenvolvimento de v√°rios √≥rg√£os, principalmente nos processos de ramifica√ß√£o morfog√©nica e na forma√ß√£o da vasculatura. No pulm√£o sabe-se que estes est√£o presentes desde o in√≠cio da fase embrion√°ria (dia embrion√°rio (E) 9.5). No entanto, a sua fun√ß√£o ao longo do desenvolvimento pulmonar √© desconhecida. Utilizando um modelo de ratinho deficiente em macr√≥fagos tecidulares (colony stimulating factor-1 receptor knockout (Csf1r -/- )), dados n√£o publicados da equipa demonstram malforma√ß√Ķes na morfologia pulmonar, com um decr√©scimo nos espa√ßos a√©reos e um aumento do n√ļmero de c√©lulas do tipo mesenquimatoso durante o per√≠odo fetal e p√≥s-natal da fase sacular do desenvolvimento pulmonar. Esta fase √© maioritariamente caracterizada pela especifica√ß√£o dos sacos terminais, e diferencia√ß√£o dos alv√©olos e da vasculatura. Portanto, a nossa hip√≥tese √© que os macr√≥fagos tecidulares est√£o envolvidos na regula√ß√£o da diferencia√ß√£o do epit√©lio distal e da vasculatura durante a fase sacular. De modo a testar esta hip√≥tese, n√≥s estud√°mos a express√£o dos transcritos de marcadores do epit√©lio e de mediadores da vasculatura e a sua express√£o proteica em pulm√Ķes provenientes de fetos e rec√©m-nascidos Csf1r -/- na fase sacular. A express√£o relativa dos transcritos de mol√©culas relacionadas com o epit√©lio distal evidenciou um desequil√≠brio na diferencia√ß√£o alveolar. A express√£o proteica da prote√≠na surfactante C (marcador de c√©lulas alveolares do tipo II) e da aquaporina-5 (marcador de c√©lulas alveolares do tipo I) demonstraram uma redu√ß√£o na diferencia√ß√£o alveolar nos ratinhos Csf1r -/- na fase sacular. Sendo a intera√ß√£o epit√©lio-endot√©lio crucial para um normal desenvolvimento pulmonar, a vasculatura foi tamb√©m estudada. A an√°lise de alguns mediadores vasculares demonstrou um desequil√≠brio nos n√≠veis de express√£o destes transcritos nos pulm√Ķes dos ratinhos Csf1r -/-. Adicionalmente, a express√£o proteica de dois marcadores endoteliais demonstrou defici√™ncias na forma√ß√£o vascular na maioria dos pulm√Ķes de ratinhos Csf1r -/- . No entanto, este dist√ļrbio na forma√ß√£o da vasculatura foi evidente apenas mais tarde no desenvolvimento em compara√ß√£o com os defeitos epiteliais alveolares. Em sum√°rio, os nossos dados demonstram a influ√™ncia dos macr√≥fagos tecidulares na modula√ß√£o da diferencia√ß√£o do epit√©lio alveolar, com consequentes efeitos na vasculatura, provavelmente devido √† secre√ß√£o e/ou indu√ß√£o de mediadores espec√≠ficos. Novas abordagens terap√™uticas poder√£o surgir dos mediadores produzidos pelos macr√≥fagos tecidulares para acelerar a matura√ß√£o pulmonar.O financiamento para a realiza√ß√£o deste projeto prov√©m dos fundos do Programa Operacional Regional do Norte (NORTE 2020), sobre o Acordo de Parceria PORTUGAL 2020, atrav√©s do Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FEDER). O financiamento da FEDER adv√©m tamb√©m do Programa Operacional Fatores de Competitividade ‚Äď COMPETE, e dos fundos nacionais atrav√©s da Funda√ß√£o para a Ci√™ncia e Tecnologia sobre POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007038; e sobre o projeto NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000013

    Brassicaceae Burnett no município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) includes invasive species as well as widely cultivated horticultural species. In Santa Maria, Cruciferae species usually occur in environments that have undergone urbanization such as sidewalks, roadsides, walls, near energy poles, etc. The last listing of species of this family in the area was performed by Romeu Beltr√£o in 1962 and supplemented in 1965. The objective of the current study was to update the number of records of Brassicaceae species that occur in the municipality of Santa Maria, RS, as well as to provide keys for the identification for native and naturalized genera and species. Bibliographic surveys, field collections, herbarium material analysis and data from databases of speciesLink and Flora of Brazil 2020 were carried out, as well as complementary collections from August 2018 to April 2019. The species found were photographed and identified based on the existing literature. Identification keys for genera and species, as well as illustrations, were prepared. All genera had only one representative species in Santa Maria with the exception of Lepidium, which presented three species. There was an addition of three species and one genus in relation to the last survey carried out.Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) possui esp√©cies invasoras e esp√©cies amplamente cultivadas como hort√≠colas. Em Santa Maria, ocorrem em ambientes que sofreram urbaniza√ß√£o como cal√ßadas, beira de rodovias, muros, pr√≥ximas a postes de energia, entre outros locais. O √ļltimo levantamento de esp√©cies dessa fam√≠lia no munic√≠pio foi realizado por Romeu Beltr√£o em 1962 e complementado em 1965. Com base nisso, o objetivo desse estudo foi o de atualizar os registros de Brassicaceae que ocorrem no munic√≠pio de Santa Maria, RS, bem como fornecer chaves para identifica√ß√£o para g√™neros e esp√©cies nativos e naturalizados. Foram realizados levantamentos bibliogr√°ficos, coletas de campo, an√°lises de materiais de herb√°rio e banco de dados dos s√≠tios speciesLink e Flora do Brasil 2020, bem como coletas complementares de agosto de 2018 a abril de 2019. As esp√©cies foram fotografadas e identificadas com base na literatura especializada. Foram elaboradas chaves de identifica√ß√£o para g√™neros e esp√©cies, bem como ilustra√ß√Ķes. Ao todo, foram registradas 10 esp√©cies nativas ou naturalizadas pertencentes a oito g√™neros. Todos os g√™neros apresentaram apenas uma esp√©cie representante em Santa Maria com exce√ß√£o de Lepidium que apresentou tr√™s esp√©cies. Houve um acr√©scimo de tr√™s esp√©cies e um g√™nero em rela√ß√£o ao √ļltimo levantamento realizado

    A comparative analysis of three high school textbooks’ concepts in Algebra in South Africa and Angola.

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    Masters Degree. University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg.The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of algebra sections in three textbooks; one South African grade 9, one South African grade 10, and one Angolan grade 10. Firstly, I compared the textbooks in terms of topics covered. Secondly, I compared the distribution of the text on explanations, examples and exercises, respectively. Thirdly, I used the levels of understanding of algebraic expressions suggested by Sfard and Linchevski (1994) to investigate progression and consistency of the texts. Finally, I looked at the number of steps required to move from task to solution in the examples and exercises, providing a different measure of progression. The findings revealed that the textbook for Angola is more advanced than the textbooks for South Africa in terms of topics, explanations and examples, and contains far fewer exercises. Therefore, in terms of their explanations, the textbooks from Angola are denser and have more detailed clarifications than the South African textbooks. In terms of examples and exercises, the textbooks from Angola have fewer exercises than South African textbooks. The progression both in terms of levels of understanding of algebraic expressions and in terms of number of steps required to solve tasks is swifter in the Angolan textbook. Also, there is less focus on symbol manipulation without conceptual content in the Angolan textbook. Although much depends on the ways in which textbooks are used in the classroom, this suggests that the Angolan textbook offers the learners more opportunities to learn. There were some signs that the South African textbooks had been organized in ways informed by research, and in a few cases the exercises in the South African textbooks were more explorative, allowing learners more opportunities to develop deeper conceptual understanding. This was, however, not a dominant feature

    Give to receive: private funding of science and corporate social responsibility

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    Project ReportThe thesis offers a general review about corporate social responsibility (CSR) and some related subjects like CSR strategies, relation with stakeholders, cause related marketing, social marketing, sponsorship and patronage. We then discuss funding for science and how the process to obtain it is structured, as well as a practical perspective of the funding process of a private science institution. From the general public perspective, this thesis provides a preliminary study of the opinion that Portuguese people have about Science, scientists and science related events. We focus primarily on the Researcher‚Äôs Night 08 event, on how the funding was obtained for it and the partnerships that were created in this context. We also explore ways to fund scientific research in Portugal in partnership with companies. We extend the research in detail to the Portuguese reality and analyze the results of the event from the perspective of the general public and partner companies involved. We also detail the CSR strategy of a Portuguese telecommunication company that participated in the event. Finally, this research suggests about how to promote Science in companies as a good CSR strategy. We also study the role of information and openness inside these partnerships as a key for a successful strategy.Esta tese tem por objectivo fazer uma revis√£o de conceitos relacionados com a responsabilidade social da empresa e explorar alguns temas ligados com o mesmo. Temos assim como conceitos pr√≥ximos as estrat√©gias de responsabilidade social, os stakeholders, o marketing social, patroc√≠nio e mecenato. Tamb√©m √© estudado em detalhe, o processo e o modo de obter financiamento para a ci√™ncia, assim como um exemplo pr√°tico de uma institui√ß√£o cient√≠fica portuguesa, sobre este assunto. Quanto √† perspectiva do p√ļblico em geral sobre este tema foi feito um estudo preliminar sobre a opini√£o dos mesmos quanto √† ci√™ncia, cientistas e eventos relacionados com ci√™ncia. O presente estudo √© baseado no evento ‚ÄúNoite dos Investigadores 2008‚ÄĚ e demos import√Ęncia ao modo como todo o financiamento para o mesmo foi obtido, e as parcerias com as empresas que foram estabelecidas para o sucesso do mesmo. O estudo deste caso foi alargado em detalhe com uma an√°lise de resultados tanto ao p√ļblico em geral presente no evento, como √†s empresas que estiveram envolvidas neste evento. Finalmente, o estudo sugere como melhorar a presen√ßa da ci√™ncia nas estrat√©gias de responsabilidade social das empresas. O papel da comunica√ß√£o e de uma maior abertura entre ci√™ncia e empresas s√£o vistos como estrat√©gias de sucesso para futuras rela√ß√Ķes

    As inter-rela√ß√Ķes CTSA nos manuais escolares de ci√™ncias do 2¬ļ CEB

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    As Orienta√ß√Ķes Curriculares para o Ensino B√°sico preconizam o desenvolvimento de compet√™ncias como o esp√≠rito cr√≠tico, a resolu√ß√£o de problemas e a aplica√ß√£o de conhecimento em situa√ß√Ķes do quotidiano, que tornem os alunos cidad√£os capazes de lidar com o meio em que est√£o inseridos, tornando-os aptos a aliar o conhecimento cient√≠fico √†s quest√Ķes problem√°ticas atuais. A abordagem da ci√™ncia numa perspetiva CTSA (Ci√™ncia, Tecnologia, Sociedade e Ambiente) parece-nos capaz de dotar os alunos das compet√™ncias atr√°s referidas e, por isso, consideramos que deve estar incorporada nos manuais escolares. O estudo relatado neste artigo √© parte integrante de uma investiga√ß√£o mais ampla que teve como principal objetivo perceber se manuais escolares recentes, do 5¬ļano de escolaridade, editados em 2010, exploram os conte√ļdos cient√≠ficos interligando-os com a Tecnologia, a Sociedade e o Ambiente, e n√£o como ci√™ncia pura, e/ou se apresentam atividades que apelam para o estabelecimento dessas rela√ß√Ķes. O estudo mostra que a vis√£o integrada da ci√™ncia (nas suas rela√ß√Ķes com a tecnologia, a sociedade e o ambiente) ainda n√£o √© muito significativa nos manuais escolares
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