52 research outputs found

    Breeding losses of red grouse in Glen Esk (NE Scotland): Comparative studies, 30 years on

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    Hatching success, brood survival and predation rates of red grouse chicks were examined at four sites in north-east Scotland over two years (1994--1995). Two of these sites have previously been the focus of a large-scale population study on grouse during the late 1950s enabling a comparison to be made. A total of 85 hens were radio-tracked and their breeding success monitored over the two years. Compared with studies undertaken in the 1950s, mean clutch size had risen from 7.2 to 8.6 eggs. Of the 76 nests monitored, 17 (22.4%) broods were lost either through egg or chick predation or by the adult being taken by a predator during incubation. Stoats appeared to be responsible for the largest amount of egg predation. There was a significant increase in predation levels, although hatching success was not significantly different from the 1950s. Chick mortality was highest within the first ten days, a similar result to that found in the 1950s. Overall, mean brood survival from hatching to 20 days was 55.1%. Possible reasons for larger clutch sizes, and the apparent increase in predation levels, are discussed

    A qualitative investigation of lived experiences of long-term health condition management with people who are food insecure.

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    Background: As more people are living with one or more chronic health conditions, supporting patients to become activated, self-managers of their conditions has become a key health policy focus both in the UK and internationally. There is also growing evidence in the UK that those with long term health conditions have an increased risk of being food insecure. While international evidence indicates that food insecurity adversely affects individual's health condition management capability, little is known about how those so affected manage their condition(s) in this context. An investigation of lived experience of health condition management was undertaken with food insecure people living in north east Scotland. The study aimed to explore the challenges facing food insecure people in terms of, i. their self-care condition management practices, and ii. disclosing and discussing the experience of managing their condition with a health care professional, and iii. Notions of the support they might wish to receive from them. Methods: Twenty in-depth interviews were conducted with individuals attending a food bank and food pantry in north east Scotland. Interview audio recordings were fully transcribed and thematically analysed. Results: Individuals reporting multiple physical and mental health conditions, took part in the study. Four main themes were identified i.e.: 1. food practices, trade-offs and compromises, that relate to economic constraints and lack of choice; 2. illness experiences and food as they relate to physical and mental ill-health; 3. (in) visibility of participants' economic vulnerability within health care consultations; and 4. perceptions and expectations of the health care system. Conclusions: This study, the first of its kind in the UK, indicated that participants' health condition management aspirations were undermined by the experience of food insecurity, and that their health care consultations in were, on the whole, devoid of discussions of those challenges. As such, the study indicated practical and ethical implications for health care policy, practice and research associated with the risk of intervention-generated health inequalities that were suggested by this study. Better understanding is needed about the impact of household food insecurity on existing ill health, wellbeing and health care use across the UK

    Communication and marketing as tools to cultivate the public's health: a proposed "people and places" framework

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Communication and marketing are rapidly becoming recognized as core functions, or core competencies, in the field of public health. Although these disciplines have fostered considerable academic inquiry, a coherent sense of precisely how these disciplines can inform the practice of public health has been slower to emerge.</p> <p>Discussion</p> <p>In this article we propose a framework – based on contemporary ecological models of health – to explain how communication and marketing can be used to advance public health objectives. The framework identifies the attributes of people (as individuals, as social networks, and as communities or populations) and places that influence health behaviors and health. Communication, i.e., the provision of information, can be used in a variety of ways to foster beneficial change among both people (e.g., activating social support for smoking cessation among peers) and places (e.g., convincing city officials to ban smoking in public venues). Similarly, marketing, i.e., the development, distribution and promotion of products and services, can be used to foster beneficial change among both people (e.g., by making nicotine replacement therapy more accessible and affordable) and places (e.g., by providing city officials with model anti-tobacco legislation that can be adapted for use in their jurisdiction).</p> <p>Summary</p> <p>Public health agencies that use their communication and marketing resources effectively to support people in making healthful decisions and to foster health-promoting environments have considerable opportunity to advance the public's health, even within the constraints of their current resource base.</p

    Tumour hypoxia causes DNA hypermethylation by reducing TET activity

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    Hypermethylation of the promoters of tumour suppressor genes represses transcription of these genes, conferring growth advantages to cancer cells. How these changes arise is poorly understood. Here we show that the activity of oxygen-dependent ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes is reduced by tumour hypoxia in human and mouse cells. TET enzymes catalyse DNA demethylation through 5-methylcytosine oxidation. This reduction in activity occurs independently of hypoxia-associated alterations in TET expression, proliferation, metabolism, hypoxia-inducible factor activity or reactive oxygen species, and depends directly on oxygen shortage. Hypoxia-induced loss of TET activity increases hypermethylation at gene promoters in vitro. In patients, tumour suppressor gene promoters are markedly more methylated in hypoxic tumour tissue, independent of proliferation, stromal cell infiltration and tumour characteristics. Our data suggest that up to half of hypermethylation events are due to hypoxia, with these events conferring a selective advantage. Accordingly, increased hypoxia in mouse breast tumours increases hypermethylation, while restoration of tumour oxygenation abrogates this effect. Tumour hypoxia therefore acts as a novel regulator of DNA methylatio

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Abstract Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low–middle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‘single-use’ consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low–middle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high– and low–middle–income countries

    Ann. Zool. Fennici 39: 21--28 ISSN 0003-455X Helsinki 6 March 2002 Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2002 Breeding losses of red grouse in Glen Esk

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    rger clutch sizes, and the apparent increase in predation levels, are discussed. Introduction Red grouse (Lagopus lagopus scoticus) are restricted to the heather (Calluna vulgaris) moorlands of the British Isles, an internationally scarce and valuable habitat type (Thompson et al. 1995). It is a bird of economic importance as a quarry species and has been the subject of several long-term studies investigating its&apos; ecology, population dynamics and behaviour (e.g. Hudson 1986a, Hudson 1992, Hudson et al. 1998, Jenkins et al. 1963, 1967, Moss et al. 1975, Watson et al. 1994, Watson et al. 2000). Although periodic crashes in grouse numbers were recorded as far back as the early 19th Century (MacDonald 1883), it was not until the 1950s that the pattern of cyclic changes in grouse numbers were first investigated in detail (Mackenzie 1952). Since then there has been a series of detailed population studies followed by experimental investigations that have examined the possible cause of the

    Identifying mechanisms for facilitating knowledge to action strategies targeting the built environment

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    Abstract Background In recent years, obesity-related diseases have been on the rise globally resulting in major challenges for health systems and society as a whole. Emerging research in population health suggests that interventions targeting the built environment may help reduce the burden of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, translation of the evidence on the built environment into effective policy and planning changes requires engagement and collaboration between multiple sectors and government agencies for designing neighborhoods that are more conducive to healthy and active living. In this study, we identified knowledge gaps and other barriers to evidence-based decision-making and policy development related to the built environment; as well as the infrastructure, processes, and mechanisms needed to drive policy changes in this area. Methods We conducted a qualitative thematic analysis of data collected through consultations with a broad group of stakeholders (N = 42) from Southern Ontario, Canada, within various sectors (public health, urban planning, and transportation) and levels of government (federal, provincial, and municipalities). Relevant themes were classified based on the specific phase of the knowledge-to-action cycle (research, translation, and implementation) in which they were most closely aligned. Results We identified 5 themes including: 1) the need for policy-informed and actionable research (e.g. health economic analyses and policy evaluations); 2) impactful messaging that targets all relevant sectors to create the political will necessary to drive policy change; 3) common measures and tools to increase capacity for monitoring and surveillance of built environment changes; (4) intersectoral collaboration and alignment within and between levels of government to enable collective actions and provide mechanisms for sharing of resources and expertise, (5) aligning public and private sector priorities to generate public demand and support for community action; and, (6) solution-focused implementation of research that will be tailored to meet the needs of policymakers and planners. Additional research priorities and key policy and planning actions were also noted. Conclusion Our research highlights the necessity of involving stakeholders in identifying inter-sectoral solutions to develop and translate actionable research on the built environment into effective policy and planning initiatives