12 research outputs found

    Abdominal Fat Characteristics and Mortality in Rectal Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Get PDF
    : The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of adipose tissue characteristics with survival in rectal cancer patients. All consecutive patients, diagnosed with stage II-IV rectal cancer between 2010-2016 using baseline unenhanced Computed Tomography (CT), were included. Baseline total, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue areas (TAT, SAT, VAT) and densities (TATd, SATd, VATd) at third lumbar vertebra (L3) were retrospectively measured. The association of these tissues with cancer-specific and progression-free survival (CCS, PFS) was assessed by using competitive risk models adjusted by age, sex and stage. Among the 274 included patients (median age 70 years, 41.2% females), the protective effect of increasing adipose tissue area on survival could be due to random fluctuations (e.g., sub-distribution hazard ratio-SHR for one cm2 increase in SAT = 0.997; 95%confidence interval-CI = 0.994-1.000; p = 0.057, for CSS), while increasing density was associated with poorer survival (e.g., SHR for one Hounsfield Unit-HU increase in SATd = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05, p = 0.002, for CSS). In models considering each adipose tissue area and respective density, the association with CSS tended to disappear for areas, while it did not change for TATd and SATd. No association was found with PFS. In conclusion, adipose tissue density influenced survival in rectal cancer patients, raising awareness on a routinely measurable variable that requires more research efforts

    Functional Characterization of p.(Arg160Gln) PCSK9 Variant Accidentally Found in a Hypercholesterolemic Subject

    Get PDF
    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant dyslipidaemia, characterised by elevated LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the blood. Three main genes are involved in FH diagnosis: LDL receptor (LDLr), Apolipoprotein B (APOB) and Protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) with genetic mutations that led to reduced plasma LDL-C clearance. To date, several PCSK9 gain-of-function (GOF) variants causing FH have been described based on their increased ability to degrade LDLr. On the other hand, mutations that reduce the activity of PCSK9 on LDLr degradation have been described as loss-of-function (LOF) variants. It is therefore important to functionally characterise PCSK9 variants in order to support the genetic diagnosis of FH. The aim of this work is to functionally characterise the p.(Arg160Gln) PCSK9 variant found in a subject suspected to have FH. Different techniques have been combined to determine efficiency of the autocatalytic cleavage, protein expression, effect of the variant on LDLr activity and affinity of the PCSK9 variant for the LDLr. Expression and processing of the p.(Arg160Gln) variant had a result similar to that of WT PCSK9. The effect of p.(Arg160Gln) PCSK9 on LDLr activity is lower than WT PCSK9, with higher values of LDL internalisation (13%) and p.(Arg160Gln) PCSK9 affinity for the LDLr is lower than WT, EC50 8.6 ± 0.8 and 25.9 ± 0.7, respectively. The p.(Arg160Gln) PCSK9 variant is a LOF PCSK9 whose loss of activity is caused by a displacement of the PCSK9 P’ helix, which reduces the stability of the LDLr-PCSK9 complex.This research was funded by Grupos Consolidados Gobierno Vasco 2021, grant number IT1720-22. A.L.-S. was supported by a grant PIF (2019–2020), Gobierno Vasco and partially supported by Fundación Biofísica Bizkaia. S.J-B. was supported by a Margarita Salas Grant 2022 from the University of the Basque Country

    Modifications of Chest CT Body Composition Parameters at Three and Six Months after Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Get PDF
    We aimed to describe body composition changes up to 6-7 months after severe COVID-19 and to evaluate their association with COVID-19 inflammatory burden, described by the integral of the C-reactive protein (CRP) curve. The pectoral muscle area (PMA) and density (PMD), liver-to-spleen (L/S) ratio, and total, visceral, and intermuscular adipose tissue areas (TAT, VAT, and IMAT) were measured at baseline (T0), 2-3 months (T1), and 6-7 months (T2) follow-up CT scans of severe COVID-19 pneumonia survivors. Among the 208 included patients (mean age 65.6 ± 11 years, 31.3% females), decreases in PMA [mean (95%CI) -1.11 (-1.72; -0.51) cm2] and in body fat areas were observed [-3.13 (-10.79; +4.52) cm2 for TAT], larger from T0 to T1 than from T1 to T2. PMD increased only from T1 to T2 [+3.07 (+2.08; +4.06) HU]. Mean decreases were more evident for VAT [-3.55 (-4.94; -2.17) cm2] and steatosis [L/S ratio increase +0.17 (+0.13; +0.20)] than for TAT. In multivariable models adjusted by age, sex, and baseline TAT, increasing the CRP interval was associated with greater PMA reductions, smaller PMD increases, and greater VAT and steatosis decreases, but it was not associated with TAT decreases. In conclusion, muscle loss and fat loss (more apparent in visceral compartments) continue until 6-7 months after COVID-19. The inflammatory burden is associated with skeletal muscle loss and visceral/liver fat loss

    Performance evaluation of the high sensitive troponin I assay on the Atellica IM analyser

    Get PDF
    The Fourth Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction Global Taskforce recommends the use of high sensitive troponin (hs-Tn) assays in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. We evaluated the analytical performance of the Atellica IM High-sensitivity Troponin I Assay (hs-TnI) (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Tarrytown, USA) and compared its performance to other hs-TnI assays (Siemens Advia Centaur, Dimension Vista, Dimension EXL, and Abbott Architect (Wiesbaden, Germany)) at one or more sites across Europe. Precision, detection limit, linearity, method comparison, and interference studies were performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. Values in 40 healthy individuals were compared to the manufacturer’s cut-offs. Sample turnaround time (TAT) was examined. Imprecision repeatability CVs were 1.1–4.7% and within-lab imprecision were 1.8–7.6% (10.0–25,000 ng/L). The limit of blank (LoB), detection (LoD), and quantitation (LoQ) aligned with the manufacturer’s values of 0.5 ng/L, 1.6 ng/L, and 2.5 ng/L, respectively. Passing-Bablok regression demonstrated good correlations between Atellica IM analyser with other systems; some minor deviations were observed. All results in healthy volunteers fell below the 99th percentile URL, and greater than 50% of each sex demonstrated values above the LoD. No interference was observed for biotin (≤ 1500 µg/L), but a slight bias at 5.0 g/L haemoglobin and 50 ng/L Tn was observed. TAT from was fast (mean time = 10.9 minutes) and reproducible (6%CV). Real-world analytical and TAT performance of the hs-TnI assay on the Atellica IM analyser make this assay fit for routine use in clinical laboratories

    The impact of chest CT body composition parameters on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients

    Get PDF
    We assessed the impact of chest CT body composition parameters on outcomes and disease severity at hospital presentation of COVID-19 patients, focusing also on the possible mediation of body composition in the relationship between age and death in these patients. Chest CT scans performed at hospital presentation by consecutive COVID-19 patients (02/27/2020-03/13/2020) were retrospectively reviewed to obtain pectoralis muscle density and total, visceral, and intermuscular adipose tissue areas (TAT, VAT, IMAT) at the level of T7-T8 vertebrae. Primary outcomes were: hospitalization, mechanical ventilation (MV) and/or death, death alone. Secondary outcomes were: C-reactive protein (CRP), oxygen saturation (SO2), CT disease extension at hospital presentation. The mediation of body composition in the effect of age on death was explored. Of the 318 patients included in the study (median age 65.7 years, females 37.7%), 205 (64.5%) were hospitalized, 68 (21.4%) needed MV, and 58 (18.2%) died. Increased muscle density was a protective factor while increased TAT, VAT, and IMAT were risk factors for hospitalization and MV/death. All these parameters except TAT had borderline effects on death alone. All parameters were associated with SO2 and extension of lung parenchymal involvement at CT; VAT was associated with CRP. Approximately 3% of the effect of age on death was mediated by decreased muscle density. In conclusion, low muscle quality and ectopic fat accumulation were associated with COVID-19 outcomes, VAT was associated with baseline inflammation. Low muscle quality partly mediated the effect of age on mortality.We assessed the impact of chest CT body composition parameters on outcomes and disease severity at hospital presentation of COVID-19 patients, focusing also on the possible mediation of body composition in the relationship between age and death in these patients. Chest CT scans performed at hospital presentation by consecutive COVID-19 patients (02/ 27/2020-03/13/2020) were retrospectively reviewed to obtain pectoralis muscle density and total, visceral, and intermuscular adipose tissue areas (TAT, VAT, IMAT) at the level of T7-T8 vertebrae. Primary outcomes were: hospitalization, mechanical ventilation (MV) and/or death, death alone. Secondary outcomes were: C-reactive protein (CRP), oxygen saturation (SO2), CT disease extension at hospital presentation. The mediation of body composition in the effect of age on death was explored. Of the 318 patients included in the study (median age 65.7 years, females 37.7%), 205 (64.5%) were hospitalized, 68 (21.4%) needed MV, and 58 (18.2%) died. Increased muscle density was a protective factor while increased TAT, VAT, and IMAT were risk factors for hospitalization and MV/death. All these parameters except TAT had borderline effects on death alone. All parameters were associated with SO2 and extension of lung parenchymal involvement at CT; VAT was associated with CRP. Approximately 3% of the effect of age on death was mediated by decreased muscle density. In conclusion, low muscle quality and ectopic fat accumulation were associated with COVID-19 outcomes, VAT was associated with baseline inflammation. Low muscle quality partly mediated the effect of age on mortality

    Impact of low skeletal muscle mass and quality on clinical outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing (chemo)radiation

    No full text
    The study aimed to explore the impact of low skeletal muscle mass and quality on survival outcomes and treatment tolerance in patients undergoing radical chemo-radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC). This is significant given the growing interest in sarcopenia as a possible negative predictive/prognostic factor of disease progression and survival. From 2010 to 2017, 225 patients were included in the study. Pre-treatment computed tomography (CT) scans of HNC patients undergoing (chemo)radiation therapy were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal muscle area, normalized for height to obtain the skeletal muscle index (SMI), the skeletal muscle density (SMD) and the intramuscular adipose tissue area (IMAT) were measured at the level of the L3 vertebra. Low SMD and low SMI were defined according to previously reported thresholds, while high IMAT was defined using population-specific cut-point analysis. SMI, SMD, and IMAT were also measured at the proximal thigh (PT) level and tested as continuous variables. Clinical morpho-functional parameters, baseline nutritional markers with a known or suspected impact on HNC treatment, clinical outcomes and sarcopenia were also collected. In multivariate analyses, adjusted by age, sex, stage, diabetes, body mass index (BMI), and weight loss, L3-SMI was not significantly associated with survival, while poor muscle quality was negatively associated with overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.09–3.23, p = 0.022 and HR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.27–3.27, p = 0.003, for low L3-SMD and high L3-IMAT, respectively), progression-free survival (PFS) (HR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.39–3.66, p = 0.001 and HR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.30–2.97, p = 0.001, for low L3-SMD and high L3-IMAT, respectively) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR = 2.40, 95% CI = 1.28–4.51, p = 0.006 and HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.04–3.13, p = 0.034, for low L3-SMD and high L3-IMAT, respectively). Indices at the PT level, tested as continuous variables, showed that increasing PT-SMI and PT-SMD were significant protective factors for all survival outcomes (for OS: HR for one cm2/m2 increase in PT-SMI 0.96; 95% CI = 0.94–0.98; p = 0.001 and HR for one HU increase in PT-SMD 0.90; 95% CI = 0.85–0.94; p < 0.001, respectively). PT-IMAT was a significant risk factor only in the case of CSS (HR for one cm2 increase 1.02; 95% CI = 1.00– 1.03; p = 0.046). In conclusion, pre-treatment low muscle quality is a strong prognostic indicator of death risk in patients affected by HNC and undergoing (chemo)radiotherapy with curative intent

    Abdominal Fat Characteristics and Mortality in Rectal Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    Get PDF
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of adipose tissue characteristics with survival in rectal cancer patients. All consecutive patients, diagnosed with stage II–IV rectal cancer between 2010–2016 using baseline unenhanced Computed Tomography (CT), were included. Baseline total, subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue areas (TAT, SAT, VAT) and densities (TATd, SATd, VATd) at third lumbar vertebra (L3) were retrospectively measured. The association of these tissues with cancer-specific and progression-free survival (CCS, PFS) was assessed by using competitive risk models adjusted by age, sex and stage. Among the 274 included patients (median age 70 years, 41.2% females), the protective effect of increasing adipose tissue area on survival could be due to random fluctuations (e.g., sub-distribution hazard ratio—SHR for one cm2 increase in SAT = 0.997; 95%confidence interval—CI = 0.994–1.000; p = 0.057, for CSS), while increasing density was associated with poorer survival (e.g., SHR for one Hounsfield Unit—HU increase in SATd = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01–1.05, p = 0.002, for CSS). In models considering each adipose tissue area and respective density, the association with CSS tended to disappear for areas, while it did not change for TATd and SATd. No association was found with PFS. In conclusion, adipose tissue density influenced survival in rectal cancer patients, raising awareness on a routinely measurable variable that requires more research efforts

    The impact of chest CT body composition parameters on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients

    Get PDF
    We assessed the impact of chest CT body composition parameters on outcomes and disease severity at hospital presentation of COVID-19 patients, focusing also on the possible mediation of body composition in the relationship between age and death in these patients. Chest CT scans performed at hospital presentation by consecutive COVID-19 patients (02/ 27/2020-03/13/2020) were retrospectively reviewed to obtain pectoralis muscle density and total, visceral, and intermuscular adipose tissue areas (TAT, VAT, IMAT) at the level of T7-T8 vertebrae. Primary outcomes were: hospitalization, mechanical ventilation (MV) and/or death, death alone. Secondary outcomes were: C-reactive protein (CRP), oxygen saturation (SO2), CT disease extension at hospital presentation. The mediation of body composition in the effect of age on death was explored. Of the 318 patients included in the study (median age 65.7 years, females 37.7%), 205 (64.5%) were hospitalized, 68 (21.4%) needed MV, and 58 (18.2%) died. Increased muscle density was a protective factor while increased TAT, VAT, and IMAT were risk factors for hospitalization and MV/death. All these parameters except TAT had borderline effects on death alone. All parameters were associated with SO2 and extension of lung parenchymal involvement at CT; VAT was associated with CRP. Approximately 3% of the effect of age on death was mediated by decreased muscle density. In conclusion, low muscle quality and ectopic fat accumulation were associated with COVID-19 outcomes, VAT was associated with baseline inflammation. Low muscle quality partly mediated the effect of age on mortality

    Systematic review of existing guidelines for NAFLD assessment

    No full text
    Aim: In this systematic review, guidelines on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated, aiming at a guideline synthesis focusing on diagnosis and staging.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on any relevant database or institutional website to find guidelines on NAFLD assessment intended for clinical use on humans, in English, published from January 2010 to August 2020. Included guidelines were appraised using the AGREE II Instrument; those with higher scores and intended for use in adult patients were included in a comparative analysis. Results: Fourteen guidelines were included in the systematic review, eight of which reached an AGREE II score sufficiently high to be recommended for clinical use, of which one developed for pediatric patients only. British and North American guidelines received the highest scores. Most guidelines recommend a screening or case-finding approach in patients with metabolic risk factors who are at increased risk of steatohepatitis or fibrosis. Ultrasound is mostly recommended to confirm steatosis, while the presence of metabolic syndrome, liver function tests, fibrosis scores, and elastographic techniques may help in selecting high-risk patients to be referred to the hepatologist, who may consider liver biopsy, although referral criteria for liver biopsy are not clearly defined. Most guidelines identify the development of noninvasive tests to replace liver biopsy as a research priority.Conclusion: Several high-quality guidelines exist for NAFLD assessment, with no complete agreement on whether to screen high-risk patients and on the tests and biomarkers suggested to stratify patients and select those to be referred to liver biopsy

    Systematic review of existing guidelines for NAFLD assessment

    No full text
    Aim: In this systematic review, guidelines on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were evaluated, aiming at a guideline synthesis focusing on diagnosis and staging.Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on any relevant database or institutional website to find guidelines on NAFLD assessment intended for clinical use on humans, in English, published from January 2010 to August 2020. Included guidelines were appraised using the AGREE II Instrument; those with higher scores and intended for use in adult patients were included in a comparative analysis. Results: Fourteen guidelines were included in the systematic review, eight of which reached an AGREE II score sufficiently high to be recommended for clinical use, of which one developed for pediatric patients only. British and North American guidelines received the highest scores. Most guidelines recommend a screening or case-finding approach in patients with metabolic risk factors who are at increased risk of steatohepatitis or fibrosis. Ultrasound is mostly recommended to confirm steatosis, while the presence of metabolic syndrome, liver function tests, fibrosis scores, and elastographic techniques may help in selecting high-risk patients to be referred to the hepatologist, who may consider liver biopsy, although referral criteria for liver biopsy are not clearly defined. Most guidelines identify the development of noninvasive tests to replace liver biopsy as a research priority.Conclusion: Several high-quality guidelines exist for NAFLD assessment, with no complete agreement on whether to screen high-risk patients and on the tests and biomarkers suggested to stratify patients and select those to be referred to liver biopsy
    corecore