1,986 research outputs found

    Microscopic Enteritis; Clinical Features and Correlations with Symptoms

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    Aim: To assess the clinical characteristic of CD as well as correlation of symptoms and the degrees of intestinal mucosal lesions in Iranian children. Background: Microscopic Enteritis (Marsh 0-II) is associated with malabsorption. Patients and methods: From August 2005 to September 2009, 111 cases with malabsorption and classical gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated. Results: The mean (±SD) age of children with CD was 4.9±3.5 years (range, 6 month - 16 years) and the mean duration of symptoms was 8 ± 20.5 months. 50 cases (45%) were female and 61 cases (55%) were male. The most common clinical presentation was failure to thrive in 72%, chronic diarrhea in 65.8% and Iron deficiency anemia in 59.5%. Sensitivity of EMA was 100% in patients with Marsh IIIb and Marsh IIIc. EMA was also positive in 77% of cases with Marsh 0, 18% in Marsh I, 44% in Marsh II and 81.8% in patients with Marsh IIIa. Conclusion: Histopathology did not reflect the severity of gluten sensitivity. This would suggest that the degree of intestinal mucosal damage might not be a reliable prognostic factor. Significant symptoms can be present with minor histological change on biopsy

    Angiogenesis-promoted bone repair with silicate-shelled hydrogel fiber scaffolds

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    Promoting angiogenesis is a key strategy for stimulating the repair of damaged tissues, including bone. Among other proangiogenic factors, ions have recently been considered a potent element that can be incorporated into biomaterials and then released at therapeutic doses. Silicate-based biomaterials have been reported to induce neovascularization through vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, potentiating acceleration of bone regeneration. Here, we designed a silicate-shelled hydrogel fiber scaffold with a hard/soft layered structure to investigate the possibility of silicate coating on biopolymer for enhancing biological properties. An alginate hydrogel was injected to form a fiber scaffold with shape-tunability that was then coated with a thin silicate layer with various sol-gel compositions. The silicate/alginate scaffold could release calcium and silicate ions, and in particular, silicate ion release was highly sustainable for over one week at therapeutically relevant levels. The ionic release was highly effective in stimulating the mRNA expression of angiogenic markers (VEGF, KDR, eNOS, bFGF, and HIF1-α) in endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, the in vitro tubular networking of cells was significantly enhanced (1.5 times). In vivo implantation in subcutaneous tissue revealed more pronounced blood vessel formation around the silicate-shelled scaffolds than around silicate-free scaffolds. The presence of a silicate shell was also shown to accelerate acellular mineral (hydroxyapatite) formation. The cellular osteogenesis potential of the silicate/alginate scaffold was further proven by the enhanced expression of osteogenic genes (Col1a1, ALP and OCN). When implanted in a rat calvarium defect, the silicate-shelled scaffold demonstrated significantly improved bone formation (2-3 times higher in bone volume and density) with a concurrent sign of proangiogenesis. This work highlights that the surface-layering of silicate composition is an effective approach for improving the bone regeneration capacity of polymeric hydrogel scaffolds by stimulating ion-induced angiogenesis and providing bone bioactivity to the surface

    Measurement of the Luminosity in the ZEUS Experiment at HERA II

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    The luminosity in the ZEUS detector was measured using photons from electron bremsstrahlung. In 2001 the HERA collider was upgraded for operation at higher luminosity. At the same time the luminosity-measuring system of the ZEUS experiment was modified to tackle the expected higher photon rate and synchrotron radiation. The existing lead-scintillator calorimeter was equipped with radiation hard scintillator tiles and shielded against synchrotron radiation. In addition, a magnetic spectrometer was installed to measure the luminosity independently using photons converted in the beam-pipe exit window. The redundancy provided a reliable and robust luminosity determination with a systematic uncertainty of 1.7%. The experimental setup, the techniques used for luminosity determination and the estimate of the systematic uncertainty are reported.Comment: 25 pages, 11 figure

    An evaluation of GPUs for use in an upgraded ATLAS High Level Trigger

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    ATLAS is a general purpose particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system consists of two levels, the first level (L1) implemented in hardware and the High Level Trigger (HLT) implemented in software running on a computing cluster of commodity CPUs. The HLT reduces the trigger rate from the 100 kHz L1 accept rate to 1 kHz for recording, requiring an average per-event processing time of ~300 ms for this task. The HLT selection is based on reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the calorimeters (electromagnetic and hadronic). Performing this reconstruction within the available HLT computing cluster resources presents a significant challenge. Future HLT upgrades will result in higher detector occupancies and, consequently, will harden the reconstruction constraints. General purpose Graphics Processor Units (GPGPU) are being evaluated for possible future inclusion in an upgraded HLT computing cluster. We report on a demonstrator that has been developed consisting of GPGPU implementations of the calorimeters clustering and Inner Detector and Muon tracking algorithms integrated within the HLT software framework. We give a brief overview of the algorithm implementation and present preliminary measurements comparing the performance of the GPGPU algorithms with the current CPU versions.Peer Reviewe

    Search for lepton-flavor violation at HERA

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    A search for lepton-flavor-violating interactions ep→μXe p \to \mu X and ep→τXe p\to \tau X has been performed with the ZEUS detector using the entire HERA I data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 130 pb^{-1}. The data were taken at center-of-mass energies, s\sqrt{s}, of 300 and 318 GeV. No evidence of lepton-flavor violation was found, and constraints were derived on leptoquarks (LQs) that could mediate such interactions. For LQ masses below s\sqrt{s}, limits were set on λeq1βℓq\lambda_{eq_1} \sqrt{\beta_{\ell q}}, where λeq1\lambda_{eq_1} is the coupling of the LQ to an electron and a first-generation quark q1q_1, and βℓq\beta_{\ell q} is the branching ratio of the LQ to the final-state lepton ℓ\ell (μ\mu or τ\tau) and a quark qq. For LQ masses much larger than s\sqrt{s}, limits were set on the four-fermion interaction term λeqαλℓqβ/MLQ2\lambda_{e q_\alpha} \lambda_{\ell q_\beta} / M_{\mathrm{LQ}}^2 for LQs that couple to an electron and a quark qαq_\alpha and to a lepton ℓ\ell and a quark qβq_\beta, where α\alpha and β\beta are quark generation indices. Some of the limits are also applicable to lepton-flavor-violating processes mediated by squarks in RR-Parity-violating supersymmetric models. In some cases, especially when a higher-generation quark is involved and for the process ep→τXe p\to \tau X , the ZEUS limits are the most stringent to date.Comment: 37 pages, 10 figures, Accepted by EPJC. References and 1 figure (Fig. 6) adde

    Measurement of event shapes in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

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    Inclusive event-shape variables have been measured in the current region of the Breit frame for neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering using an integrated luminosity of 45.0 pb^-1 collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The variables studied included thrust, jet broadening and invariant jet mass. The kinematic range covered was 10 < Q^2 < 20,480 GeV^2 and 6.10^-4 < x < 0.6, where Q^2 is the virtuality of the exchanged boson and x is the Bjorken variable. The Q dependence of the shape variables has been used in conjunction with NLO perturbative calculations and the Dokshitzer-Webber non-perturbative corrections (`power corrections') to investigate the validity of this approach.Comment: 7+25 pages, 6 figure

    Beauty photoproduction measured using decays into muons in dijet events in ep collisions at s\sqrt{s}=318 GeV

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    The photoproduction of beauty quarks in events with two jets and a muon has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 110 pb−1^{- 1}. The fraction of jets containing b quarks was extracted from the transverse momentum distribution of the muon relative to the closest jet. Differential cross sections for beauty production as a function of the transverse momentum and pseudorapidity of the muon, of the associated jet and of xγjetsx_{\gamma}^{jets}, the fraction of the photon's momentum participating in the hard process, are compared with MC models and QCD predictions made at next-to-leading order. The latter give a good description of the data.Comment: 32 pages, 6 tables, 7 figures Table 6 and Figure 7 revised September 200

    The dependence of dijet production on photon virtuality in ep collisions at HERA

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    The dependence of dijet production on the virtuality of the exchanged photon, Q^2, has been studied by measuring dijet cross sections in the range 0 < Q^2 < 2000 GeV^2 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 38.6 pb^-1. Dijet cross sections were measured for jets with transverse energy E_T^jet > 7.5 and 6.5 GeV and pseudorapidities in the photon-proton centre-of-mass frame in the range -3 < eta^jet <0. The variable xg^obs, a measure of the photon momentum entering the hard process, was used to enhance the sensitivity of the measurement to the photon structure. The Q^2 dependence of the ratio of low- to high-xg^obs events was measured. Next-to-leading-order QCD predictions were found to generally underestimate the low-xg^obs contribution relative to that at high xg^obs. Monte Carlo models based on leading-logarithmic parton-showers, using a partonic structure for the photon which falls smoothly with increasing Q^2, provide a qualitative description of the data.Comment: 35 pages, 6 eps figures, submitted to Eur.Phys.J.

    Measurement of charm fragmentation ratios and fractions in photoproduction at HERA

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    The production of D^*+, D^0, D^+, D_s^+ and Lambda_c^+ charm hadrons and their antiparticles in ep scattering at HERA was measured with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 79 pb^-1. The measurement has been performed in the photoproduction regime with the exchanged-photon virtuality Q^2 < 1 GeV^2 and for photon-proton centre-of-mass energies in the range 130 < W < 300 GeV. The charm hadrons were reconstructed in the range of transverse momentum p_T(D, Lambda_c) > 3.8 GeV and pseudorapidity |eta(D, Lambda_c)| < 1.6. The production cross sections were used to determine the ratio of neutral and charged D-meson production rates, R_u/d, the strangeness-suppression factor, gamma_s, and the fraction of charged D mesons produced in a vector state, P_v^d. The measured R_u/d and gamma_s values agree with those obtained in deep inelastic scattering and in e^+e^- annihilations. The measured P_v^d value is smaller than, but consistent with, the previous measurements. The fractions of c quarks hadronising as a particular charm hadron, f(c -> D, Lambda_c), were derived in the given kinematic range. The measured open-charm fragmentation fractions are consistent with previous results, although the measured f(c -> D^*+) is smaller and f(c -> Lambda_c^+) is larger than those obtained in e^+e^- annihilations. These results generally support the hypothesis that fragmentation proceeds independently of the hard sub-process.Comment: 29 pages, 5 figures, 6 tables; minor text revision

    An NLO QCD analysis of inclusive cross-section and jet-production data from the ZEUS experiment

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    The ZEUS inclusive differential cross-section data from HERA, for charged and neutral current processes taken with e+ and e- beams, together with differential cross-section data on inclusive jet production in e+ p scattering and dijet production in \gamma p scattering, have been used in a new NLO QCD analysis to extract the parton distribution functions of the proton. The input of jet data constrains the gluon and allows an accurate extraction of \alpha_s(M_Z) at NLO; \alpha_s(M_Z) = 0.1183 \pm 0.0028(exp.) \pm 0.0008(model) An additional uncertainty from the choice of scales is estimated as \pm 0.005. This is the first extraction of \alpha_s(M_Z) from HERA data alone.Comment: 37 pages, 14 figures, to be submitted to EPJC. PDFs available at http://durpdg.dur.ac.uk/hepdata in LHAPDFv
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