3,626 research outputs found

    Microscopic Enteritis; Clinical Features and Correlations with Symptoms

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    Aim: To assess the clinical characteristic of CD as well as correlation of symptoms and the degrees of intestinal mucosal lesions in Iranian children. Background: Microscopic Enteritis (Marsh 0-II) is associated with malabsorption. Patients and methods: From August 2005 to September 2009, 111 cases with malabsorption and classical gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated. Results: The mean (±SD) age of children with CD was 4.9±3.5 years (range, 6 month - 16 years) and the mean duration of symptoms was 8 ± 20.5 months. 50 cases (45%) were female and 61 cases (55%) were male. The most common clinical presentation was failure to thrive in 72%, chronic diarrhea in 65.8% and Iron deficiency anemia in 59.5%. Sensitivity of EMA was 100% in patients with Marsh IIIb and Marsh IIIc. EMA was also positive in 77% of cases with Marsh 0, 18% in Marsh I, 44% in Marsh II and 81.8% in patients with Marsh IIIa. Conclusion: Histopathology did not reflect the severity of gluten sensitivity. This would suggest that the degree of intestinal mucosal damage might not be a reliable prognostic factor. Significant symptoms can be present with minor histological change on biopsy

    Angiogenesis-promoted bone repair with silicate-shelled hydrogel fiber scaffolds

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    Promoting angiogenesis is a key strategy for stimulating the repair of damaged tissues, including bone. Among other proangiogenic factors, ions have recently been considered a potent element that can be incorporated into biomaterials and then released at therapeutic doses. Silicate-based biomaterials have been reported to induce neovascularization through vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathway, potentiating acceleration of bone regeneration. Here, we designed a silicate-shelled hydrogel fiber scaffold with a hard/soft layered structure to investigate the possibility of silicate coating on biopolymer for enhancing biological properties. An alginate hydrogel was injected to form a fiber scaffold with shape-tunability that was then coated with a thin silicate layer with various sol-gel compositions. The silicate/alginate scaffold could release calcium and silicate ions, and in particular, silicate ion release was highly sustainable for over one week at therapeutically relevant levels. The ionic release was highly effective in stimulating the mRNA expression of angiogenic markers (VEGF, KDR, eNOS, bFGF, and HIF1-α) in endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, the in vitro tubular networking of cells was significantly enhanced (1.5 times). In vivo implantation in subcutaneous tissue revealed more pronounced blood vessel formation around the silicate-shelled scaffolds than around silicate-free scaffolds. The presence of a silicate shell was also shown to accelerate acellular mineral (hydroxyapatite) formation. The cellular osteogenesis potential of the silicate/alginate scaffold was further proven by the enhanced expression of osteogenic genes (Col1a1, ALP and OCN). When implanted in a rat calvarium defect, the silicate-shelled scaffold demonstrated significantly improved bone formation (2-3 times higher in bone volume and density) with a concurrent sign of proangiogenesis. This work highlights that the surface-layering of silicate composition is an effective approach for improving the bone regeneration capacity of polymeric hydrogel scaffolds by stimulating ion-induced angiogenesis and providing bone bioactivity to the surface

    The ATLAS High Level Trigger Steering

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    The High Level Trigger (HLT) of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider receives events which pass the LVL1 trigger at ~75 kHz and has to reduce the rate to ~200 Hz while retaining the most interesting physics. It is a software trigger and performs the reduction in two stages: the LVL2 trigger and the Event Filter (EF). At the heart of the HLT is the Steering software. To minimise processing time and data transfers it implements the novel event selection strategies of seeded, step-wise reconstruction and early rejection. The HLT is seeded by regions of interest identified at LVL1. These and the static configuration determine which algorithms are run to reconstruct event data and test the validity of trigger signatures. The decision to reject the event or continue is based on the valid signatures, taking into account pre-scale and pass-through. After the EF, event classification tags are assigned for streaming purposes. Several powerful new features for commissioning and operation have been added: comprehensive monitoring is now built in to the framework; for validation and debugging, reconstructed data can be written out; the steering is integrated with the new configuration (presented separately), and topological and global triggers have been added. This paper will present details of the final design and its implementation, the principles behind it, and the requirements and constraints it is subject to. The experience gained from technical runs with realistic trigger menus will be described

    Measurement of the Luminosity in the ZEUS Experiment at HERA II

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    The luminosity in the ZEUS detector was measured using photons from electron bremsstrahlung. In 2001 the HERA collider was upgraded for operation at higher luminosity. At the same time the luminosity-measuring system of the ZEUS experiment was modified to tackle the expected higher photon rate and synchrotron radiation. The existing lead-scintillator calorimeter was equipped with radiation hard scintillator tiles and shielded against synchrotron radiation. In addition, a magnetic spectrometer was installed to measure the luminosity independently using photons converted in the beam-pipe exit window. The redundancy provided a reliable and robust luminosity determination with a systematic uncertainty of 1.7%. The experimental setup, the techniques used for luminosity determination and the estimate of the systematic uncertainty are reported.Comment: 25 pages, 11 figure

    Triggering events with GPUs at ATLAS

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    The growing complexity of events produced in LHC collisions demands increasing computing power both for the online selection and for the offline reconstruction of events. In recent years there have been significant advances in the performance of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) both in terms of increased compute power and reduced power consumption that make GPUs extremely attractive for use in a complex particle physics experiments such as ATLAS. A small scale prototype of the full ATLAS High Level Trigger has been implemented that exploits reconstruction algorithms optimized for this new massively parallel paradigm. We discuss the integration procedure followed for this prototype and present the performance achieved and the prospects for the future.Peer Reviewe

    Visualizing the Anthropocene dialectically: Jessica Woodworth and Peter Brosens’ eco-crisis trilogy

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    The ambition of this article is to propose a way of visualizing the Anthropocene dialectically. As suggested by the Dutch atmospheric chemist Paul Crutzen and the professor of biology Eugene F. Stoermer, the term Anthropocene refers to a historical period in which humankind has turned into a geological force that transforms the natural environment in such a way that it is hard to distinguish between the human and the natural world. Crutzen and Stoermer explain that the Anthropocene has begun after the Holocene, the geological epoch that followed the last ice age and lasted until the industrial revolution. Drawing on a number of figures such as the “tenfold” increase in urbanisation, the extreme transformation of land surface by human action, the use of more than 50% of all accessible fresh water by humans, and the massive increase in greenhouse emissions, Crutzen and Stoermer conclude that the term Anthropocene describes aptly mankind's influence on ecological and geological cycles (Crutzen & Stoermer, 2000, p.17). The wager of this article is that we need to identify ways to visualize the Anthropocene dialectically and I proceed to do so using as a case study Jessica Woodworth's and Peter Brosen's trilogy on the conflict between humans and nature, which consists of Khadak (2006), Altiplano (2009), and The Fifth Season (La Cinquième Saison, 2012)

    An evaluation of GPUs for use in an upgraded ATLAS High Level Trigger

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    ATLAS is a general purpose particle physics experiment located on the LHC collider at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger system consists of two levels, the first level (L1) implemented in hardware and the High Level Trigger (HLT) implemented in software running on a computing cluster of commodity CPUs. The HLT reduces the trigger rate from the 100 kHz L1 accept rate to 1 kHz for recording, requiring an average per-event processing time of ~300 ms for this task. The HLT selection is based on reconstructing tracks in the Inner Detector and Muon Spectrometer and clusters of energy deposited in the calorimeters (electromagnetic and hadronic). Performing this reconstruction within the available HLT computing cluster resources presents a significant challenge. Future HLT upgrades will result in higher detector occupancies and, consequently, will harden the reconstruction constraints. General purpose Graphics Processor Units (GPGPU) are being evaluated for possible future inclusion in an upgraded HLT computing cluster. We report on a demonstrator that has been developed consisting of GPGPU implementations of the calorimeters clustering and Inner Detector and Muon tracking algorithms integrated within the HLT software framework. We give a brief overview of the algorithm implementation and present preliminary measurements comparing the performance of the GPGPU algorithms with the current CPU versions.Peer Reviewe

    Search for lepton-flavor violation at HERA

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    A search for lepton-flavor-violating interactions ep→μXe p \to \mu X and ep→τXe p\to \tau X has been performed with the ZEUS detector using the entire HERA I data sample, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 130 pb^{-1}. The data were taken at center-of-mass energies, s\sqrt{s}, of 300 and 318 GeV. No evidence of lepton-flavor violation was found, and constraints were derived on leptoquarks (LQs) that could mediate such interactions. For LQ masses below s\sqrt{s}, limits were set on λeq1βℓq\lambda_{eq_1} \sqrt{\beta_{\ell q}}, where λeq1\lambda_{eq_1} is the coupling of the LQ to an electron and a first-generation quark q1q_1, and βℓq\beta_{\ell q} is the branching ratio of the LQ to the final-state lepton ℓ\ell (μ\mu or τ\tau) and a quark qq. For LQ masses much larger than s\sqrt{s}, limits were set on the four-fermion interaction term λeqαλℓqβ/MLQ2\lambda_{e q_\alpha} \lambda_{\ell q_\beta} / M_{\mathrm{LQ}}^2 for LQs that couple to an electron and a quark qαq_\alpha and to a lepton ℓ\ell and a quark qβq_\beta, where α\alpha and β\beta are quark generation indices. Some of the limits are also applicable to lepton-flavor-violating processes mediated by squarks in RR-Parity-violating supersymmetric models. In some cases, especially when a higher-generation quark is involved and for the process ep→τXe p\to \tau X , the ZEUS limits are the most stringent to date.Comment: 37 pages, 10 figures, Accepted by EPJC. References and 1 figure (Fig. 6) adde

    Measurement of event shapes in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

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    Inclusive event-shape variables have been measured in the current region of the Breit frame for neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering using an integrated luminosity of 45.0 pb^-1 collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The variables studied included thrust, jet broadening and invariant jet mass. The kinematic range covered was 10 < Q^2 < 20,480 GeV^2 and 6.10^-4 < x < 0.6, where Q^2 is the virtuality of the exchanged boson and x is the Bjorken variable. The Q dependence of the shape variables has been used in conjunction with NLO perturbative calculations and the Dokshitzer-Webber non-perturbative corrections (`power corrections') to investigate the validity of this approach.Comment: 7+25 pages, 6 figure
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