81 research outputs found

    The Interaction between Chronotype and Napping on Inhibition in College Students

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    College is a critical transition period in the lives of young adults with more scheduling freedoms, including naps. While sleep is universally critical for proper functioning, each person’s chronotype varies depending on when they best engage in activities and sleep. Inhibition, our ability to focus on relevant stimuli, also has underlying implications on our ability to perform tasks. In a sample of 738 college-aged students, we sought to better understand the relations between these variables which have practical implications suggesting that napping affects students’ inhibition and health differently based on their chronotype

    Promethin is a Conserved Seipin Partner Protein

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    The M.B. lab is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Cells-in-Motion Cluster of Excellence (EXC 1003—CiM), University of Münster, Germany. The M.S. lab is funded by an SFB1190 by the DFG and a Volkswagen Stiftung “Life” Grant (93092). M.S. is an Incumbent of the Dr. Gilbert Omenn and Martha Darling Professorial Chair in Molecular Genetics. The J.J.R. lab is supported the Medical Research Council [Research Grant MR/L002620/1] and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council [BB/K017772/1]. I.G.C. is supported by an EMBO Long-term Fellowship (ALTF-580-2017). M.E.B. is grateful to the Azrieli Foundation for the award of an Azrieli Fellowship.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Introducing mobile edge computing capabilities through distributed 5G Cloud Enabled Small Cells

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    Current trends in broadband mobile networks are addressed towards the placement of different capabilities at the edge of the mobile network in a centralised way. On one hand, the split of the eNB between baseband processing units and remote radio headers makes it possible to process some of the protocols in centralised premises, likely with virtualised resources. On the other hand, mobile edge computing makes use of processing and storage capabilities close to the air interface in order to deploy optimised services with minimum delay. The confluence of both trends is a hot topic in the definition of future 5G networks. The full centralisation of both technologies in cloud data centres imposes stringent requirements to the fronthaul connections in terms of throughput and latency. Therefore, all those cells with limited network access would not be able to offer these types of services. This paper proposes a solution for these cases, based on the placement of processing and storage capabilities close to the remote units, which is especially well suited for the deployment of clusters of small cells. The proposed cloud-enabled small cells include a highly efficient microserver with a limited set of virtualised resources offered to the cluster of small cells. As a result, a light data centre is created and commonly used for deploying centralised eNB and mobile edge computing functionalities. The paper covers the proposed architecture, with special focus on the integration of both aspects, and possible scenarios of application.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Cellular metabolism regulates contact sites between vacuoles and mitochondria

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    Emerging evidence suggests that contact sites between different organelles form central hubs in the coordination of cellular physiology. Although recent work has emphasized the crucial role of the endoplasmic reticulum in interorganellar crosstalk, the cooperative behavior of other organelles is largely unexplored. Here, we identify a contact site named vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch) that integrates mitochondria with the lysosome-like vacuole and thus the endocytic pathway. vCLAMPs depend on the vacuolar HOPS tethering complex subunit Vps39/Vam6 and the Rab GTPase Ypt7, which also participate in membrane fusion at the vacuole. Intriguingly, vCLAMPs are located proximal to the ER-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) complexes, and an increase in vCLAMPs can rescue the growth defect of ERMES mutants. Importantly, the persistence of vCLAMPs is regulated by phosphorylation of Vps39 and is strongly reduced during respiratory growth. The identification of this organelle contact site reveals a physical and metabolic interconnection between the endocytic pathway and mitochondria

    SOAT1: a suitable target for therapy in high-grade astrocytic glioma?

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    Targeting molecular alterations as an effective treatment for isocitrate dehydrogenase-wildtype glioblastoma (GBM) patients has not yet been established. Sterol-O-Acyl Transferase 1 (SOAT1), a key enzyme in the conversion of endoplasmic reticulum cholesterol to esters for storage in lipid droplets (LD), serves as a target for the orphan drug mitotane to treat adrenocortical carcinoma. Inhibition of SOAT1 also suppresses GBM growth. Here, we refined SOAT1-expression in GBM and IDH-mutant astrocytoma, CNS WHO grade 4 (HGA), and assessed the distribution of LD in these tumors. Twenty-seven GBM and three HGA specimens were evaluated by multiple GFAP, Iba1, IDH1 R132H, and SOAT1 immunofluorescence labeling as well as Oil Red O staining. To a small extent SOAT1 was expressed by tumor cells in both tumor entities. In contrast, strong expression was observed in glioma-associated macrophages. Triple immunofluorescence labeling revealed, for the first time, evidence for SOAT1 colocalization with Iba1 and IDH1 R132H, respectively. Furthermore, a notable difference in the amount of LD between GBM and HGA was observed. Therefore, SOAT1 suppression might be a therapeutic option to target GBM and HGA growth and invasiveness. In addition, the high expression in cells related to neuroinflammation could be beneficial for a concomitant suppression of protumoral microglia/macrophages

    Dual role of Mic10 in mitochondrial cristae organization and ATP synthase-linked metabolic adaptation and respiratory growth

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    Invaginations of the mitochondrial inner membrane, termed cristae, are hubs for oxidative phosphorylation. The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) and the dimeric F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase play important roles in controlling cristae architecture. A fraction of the MICOS core subunit Mic10 is found in association with the ATP synthase, yet it is unknown whether this interaction is of relevance for mitochondrial or cellular functions. Here, we established conditions to selectively study the role of Mic10 at the ATP synthase. Mic10 variants impaired in MICOS functions stimulate ATP synthase oligomerization like wild-type Mic10 and promote efficient inner membrane energization, adaptation to non-fermentable carbon sources, and respiratory growth. Mic10's functions in respiratory growth largely depend on Mic10(ATPsynthase), not on Mic10(MICOS). We conclude that Mic10 plays a dual role as core subunit of MICOS and as partner of the F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase, serving distinct functions in cristae shaping and respiratory adaptation and growth

    Central role of mic10 in the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system

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    The mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system (MICOS) is a conserved multi-subunit complex crucial for maintaining the characteristic architecture of mitochondria. Studies with deletion mutants identified Mic10 and Mic60 as core subunits of MICOS. Mic60 has been studied in detail; however, topogenesis and function of Mic10 are unknown. We report that targeting of Mic10 to the mitochondrial inner membrane requires a positively charged internal loop, but no cleavable presequence. Both transmembrane segments of Mic10 carry a characteristic four-glycine motif, which has been found in the ring-forming rotor subunit of F1Fo-ATP synthases. Overexpression of Mic10 profoundly alters the architecture of the inner membrane independently of other MICOS components. The four-glycine motifs are dispensable for interaction of Mic10 with other MICOS subunits but are crucial for the formation of large Mic10 oligomers. Our studies identify a unique role of Mic10 oligomers in promoting the formation of inner membrane crista junctions

    Identification of seipin-linked factors that act as determinants of a lipid droplet subpopulation

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    Functional heterogeneity within the lipid droplet (LD) pool of a single cell has been observed, yet the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. Here, we report on identification of a specialized LD subpopulation characterized by a unique proteome and a defined geographical location at the nucleus-vacuole junction contact site. In search for factors determining identity of these LDs, we screened similar to 6,000 yeast mutants for loss of targeting of the subpopulation marker Pdr16 and identified Ldo45 (LD organization protein of 45 kD) as a crucial targeting determinant. Ldo45 is the product of a splicing event connecting two adjacent genes (YMR147W and YMR148W/OSW5/LDO16). We show that Ldo proteins cooperate with the LD biogenesis component seipin and establish LD identity by defining positioning and surface-protein composition. Our studies suggest a mechanism to establish functional differentiation of organelles, opening the door to better understanding of metabolic decisions in cells

    Transcription factors relevant to auxin signalling coordinate broad-spectrum metabolic shifts including sulphur metabolism

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    A systems approach has previously been used to follow the response behaviour of Arabidopsis thaliana plants upon sulphur limitation. A response network was reconstructed from a time series of transcript and metabolite profiles, integrating complex metabolic and transcript data in order to investigate a potential causal relationship. The resulting scale-free network allowed potential transcriptional regulators of sulphur metabolism to be identified. Here, three sulphur-starvation responsive transcription factors, IAA13, IAA28, and ARF-2 (ARF1-Binding Protein), all of which are related to auxin signalling, were selected for further investigation. IAA28 overexpressing and knock-down lines showed no major morphological changes, whereas IAA13- and ARF1-BP-overexpressing plants grew more slowly than the wild type. Steady-state metabolite levels and expression of pathway-relevant genes were monitored under normal and sulphate-depleted conditions. For all lines, changes in transcript and metabolite levels were observed, yet none of these changes could exclusively be linked to sulphur stress. Instead, up- or down-regulation of the transcription factors caused metabolic changes which in turn affected sulphur metabolism. Auxin-relevant transcription factors are thus part of a complex response pattern to nutrient starvation that serve as coordinators of the metabolic shifts driving sulphur homeostasis rather then as direct effectors of the sulphate assimilation pathway. This study provides the first evidence ever presented that correlates auxin-related transcriptional regulators with primary plant metabolism
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