6,007 research outputs found

    Techno-economic analysis of hydrogen production using biomass gasification. A small scale power plant study

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    Hydrogen has the potential to be a clean alternative to the fossil fuels currently used. This is especially true if hydrogen is manufactured from renewable resources such as biomass. However, hydrogen from biomass faces techno and economic challenges especially in the small size required for the decentralized hydrogen production. In this purpose, a techno economic analysis was carried out on small scale (100kWth) system. The plant is mainly composed of gasifier (double bubbling fluidized bed reactor) coupled with a Portable Purification Unit (PPS: catalytic filter candles, Water Gas Shift and Pressure Swing Absorption). This work focuses on system costs to identify barriers to the development of this technology. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to study hydrogen production cost as a function of capital cost, operating cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The results showed that although efficiency of the production system is the main factor to fall production cost, it cannot be able to reduce costs to favorable level alone. In other words, PPS cost recognized as the major cost is requisite to go down. Therefore, the 50% reduction of PPS cost and the variation of steam to biomass from 1 to 1.5 allow the special cost to fluctuate between 12.75-9.5 €/kg

    Experimental tests of solar collectors prototypes systems

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    Solar thermal collectors represent one of the most widely used technologies for heat production from renewable energy sources. To increase efficiency and to not increase too much cost different type of solar collectors, and in particular of evacuated tube collectors have been realized. In order to compare performance, tests at different conditions and in different configurations have to be performed. The aim of this paper is to establish the performance of a new prototype via an experimental evaluation of the performance in different conditions and configurations of three collectors. The prototype is particular owing to his new head configuration that permits an innovative parallel configuration way. Therefore, parallel and series configurations have been analyzed applying the UNI-EN 12975, in a steady-state regime. The efficiencies of the two configurations have been tested for different flow rates and different inflow water temperatures. The experimental results show that, with the same input flow rate to the single collector, the parallel configuration has higher performance than the series one, reaching 15% higher level of efficiency. Thus, it seems that these prototypes in optimized configuration can lead to a systems improvement, thereby increasing the overall energy production or giving the same energy production with smaller collector area. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd

    An application of the Michaelis–Menten model to analyze the curing process of cold recycled bituminous mixtures

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    Abstract In this paper the laboratory curing process of two types of cold recycled mixtures manufactured during the construction of an experimental pavement section along an Italian motorway was investigated. Specifically, a cement–bitumen treated material (CBTM) mixture and a cement treated material (CTM) mixture, produced both on site and in laboratory, were tested. Moisture loss by evaporation (DW), indirect tensile stiffness modulus (ITSM) and indirect tensile strength (ITS) were measured in order to evaluate the curing process. The measured data were analyzed using the nonlinear Michaelis–Menten (MM) model with the aim to characterize the rate at which the mixture properties evolve over time and their values at the long-term cured state. The results showed that the adopted curing variables (DW, ITSM and ITS) gave a comparable description of the curing process, when evaporation was allowed and that the MM model gave an appropriate description of the evolutive behavior of CBTMs and CTMs. Finally, the results showed that in the initial curing stage the effect of cement hydration prevailed on that of emulsion breaking

    Comparison between 1-D and grey-box models of a SOFC

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    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) have shown unique performance in terms of greater electrical efficiency and thermochemical integrity with the power systems compared to gas turbines and internal combustion engines. Nonetheless, simple and reliable models still must be defined. In this paper, a comparison between a grey-box model and a 1-D model of a SOFC is performed to understand the impact of the heat transfer inside the cell on the internal temperature distribution of the solid electrolyte. Hence, a significant internal temperature peak of the solid electrolyte is observed for a known difference between anode and cathode inlet temperatures. Indeed, it highlights the difference between the 1-D model and the grey-box model regarding the thermal conditioning of the SOFC. Therefore, the results of this study can be used to investigate the reliability of the thermal results of box models in system-level simulations

    Hydrogen-rich gas production by sorption enhanced steam reforming of woodgas containing TAR over a commercial Ni catalyst and calcined dolomite as CO2 sorbent.

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    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the catalytic steam reforming of a gaseous fuel obtained by steam biomass gasification to convert topping atmosphere residue (TAR) and CH 4 and to produce pure H 2 by means of a CO 2 sorbent. This experimental work deals with the demonstration of the practical feasibility of such concepts, using a real woodgas obtained from fluidized bed steam gasification of hazelnut shells. This study evaluates the use of a commercial Ni catalyst and calcined dolomite (CaO/MgO). The bed material simultaneously acts as reforming catalyst and CO 2 sorbent. The experimental investigations have been carried out in a fixed bed micro-reactor rig using a slipstream from the gasifier to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. The reforming/sorption tests were carried out at 650 °C while regeneration of the sorbent was carried out at 850 °C in a nitrogen environment. Both combinations of catalyst and sorbent are very effective in TAR and CH 4 removal, with conversions near 100%, while the simultaneous CO 2 sorption effectively enhances the water gas shift reaction producing a gas with a hydrogen volume fraction of over 90%. Multicycle tests of reforming/CO 2 capture and regeneration were performed to verify the stability of the catalysts and sorbents to remove TAR and capture CO 2 during the duty cycle

    Mechanical Characterization and Chemical Identification of Clear Binders for Road Surface Courses

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    The development of non‐black asphalt mixtures for surface courses may play a significant role to improve functional, aesthetic and environmental issues of road pavements. Nowadays, the development of clear binders as substitutes for traditional bitumen in asphalt mixtures, which combine durability and mechanical properties, exalting the color of pavements for a better integration of road networks in urban and environmentally sensitive areas, is undoubtedly a timing challenge. However, the selection and classification of clear binders are often based only on color and standard requirements referred to traditional bitumen that do not describe consistently the binder behavior. A better understanding on clear binder properties is required to guide the aggregate selection and the mix design for surface layer, merging safety, aesthetical and environmental benefits into long lasting pavement. This paper presents a comprehensive experimental program, including empirical tests, infrared spectrum analysis, and rheological testing over a wide range of temperature and frequency, to determine the overall mechanical behavior of three clear binders. Results highlighted that the selected clear binders differ from traditional bitumen in terms of mechanical behavior. Different composition or origin can induce to completely different performance. Moreover, the combination of several testing procedures allowed suggesting specific application methods and uses for the three clear binders

    Tagging b jets with electrons and muons at CMS

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    The first results of identification of jets from b quarks with soft-lepton tagging algorithms are presented in this note. Jets are built from the energy deposits in the electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters, with an iterative cone algorithm. Electrons and muons are searched for among the reconstructed charged particle tracks associated to these jets with an angular distance criterion. The muon identification is based on standard muon reconstruction algorithms, exploiting the dedicated muon detectors, while electron identification is based on the extrapolation of charged particle tracks into the calorimeter and a detailed analysis of the calorimeter clusters in the region around the track. Jets from b quarks are identified from the kinematic properties of the leptons relative to the jet and the significance of the three dimensional impact parameter of the lepton with respect to the event vertex. The effect of not incorporating the impact parameter significance, as would be necessary for data collected prior to the installation of the silicon pixel tracking detector, is also studied

    Heterogeneous reconstruction of tracks and primary vertices with the CMS pixel tracker

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    The High-Luminosity upgrade of the LHC will see the accelerator reach an instantaneous luminosity of 7×1034cm−2s−17\times 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1} with an average pileup of 200200 proton-proton collisions. These conditions will pose an unprecedented challenge to the online and offline reconstruction software developed by the experiments. The computational complexity will exceed by far the expected increase in processing power for conventional CPUs, demanding an alternative approach. Industry and High-Performance Computing (HPC) centres are successfully using heterogeneous computing platforms to achieve higher throughput and better energy efficiency by matching each job to the most appropriate architecture. In this paper we will describe the results of a heterogeneous implementation of pixel tracks and vertices reconstruction chain on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). The framework has been designed and developed to be integrated in the CMS reconstruction software, CMSSW. The speed up achieved by leveraging GPUs allows for more complex algorithms to be executed, obtaining better physics output and a higher throughput

    Thermodynamic modeling of hydrogen refueling for heavy-duty fuel cell buses and comparison with aggregated real data

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    Abstract The foreseen uptake of hydrogen mobility is a fundamental step towards the decarbonization of the transport sector. Under such premises, both refueling infrastructure and vehicles should be deployed together with improved refueling protocols. Several studies focus on refueling the light-duty vehicles with 10 kgH2 up to 700 bar, however less known effort is reported for refueling heavy-duty vehicles with 30–40 kgH2 at 350 bar. The present study illustrates the application of a lumped model to a fuel cell bus tank-to-tank refueling event, tailored upon the real data acquired in the 3Emotion Project. The evolution of the main refueling quantities, such as pressure, temperature, and mass flow, are predicted dynamically throughout the refueling process, as a function of the operating parameters, within the safety limits imposed by SAE J2601/2 technical standard. The results show to refuel the vehicle tank from half to full capacity with an Average Pressure Ramp Rate (APRR) equal to 0.03 MPa/s are needed about 10 min. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of varying the initial vehicle tank pressure is more significant than changing the ambient temperature on the refueling performances. In conclusion, the analysis of the effect of different APRR, from 0.03 to 0.1 MPa/s, indicate that is possible to safely reduce the duration of half-to-full refueling by 62% increasing the APRR value from 0.03 to 0.08 MPa/s