37 research outputs found

    The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment: Exploring Fundamental Symmetries of the Universe

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    The preponderance of matter over antimatter in the early Universe, the dynamics of the supernova bursts that produced the heavy elements necessary for life and whether protons eventually decay --- these mysteries at the forefront of particle physics and astrophysics are key to understanding the early evolution of our Universe, its current state and its eventual fate. The Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) represents an extensively developed plan for a world-class experiment dedicated to addressing these questions. LBNE is conceived around three central components: (1) a new, high-intensity neutrino source generated from a megawatt-class proton accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, (2) a near neutrino detector just downstream of the source, and (3) a massive liquid argon time-projection chamber deployed as a far detector deep underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility. This facility, located at the site of the former Homestake Mine in Lead, South Dakota, is approximately 1,300 km from the neutrino source at Fermilab -- a distance (baseline) that delivers optimal sensitivity to neutrino charge-parity symmetry violation and mass ordering effects. This ambitious yet cost-effective design incorporates scalability and flexibility and can accommodate a variety of upgrades and contributions. With its exceptional combination of experimental configuration, technical capabilities, and potential for transformative discoveries, LBNE promises to be a vital facility for the field of particle physics worldwide, providing physicists from around the globe with opportunities to collaborate in a twenty to thirty year program of exciting science. In this document we provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess.Comment: Major update of previous version. This is the reference document for LBNE science program and current status. Chapters 1, 3, and 9 provide a comprehensive overview of LBNE's scientific objectives, its place in the landscape of neutrino physics worldwide, the technologies it will incorporate and the capabilities it will possess. 288 pages, 116 figure

    Prognostic model to predict postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery based on a national prospective observational cohort study.

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    Background: Acute illness, existing co-morbidities and surgical stress response can all contribute to postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing major gastrointestinal surgery. The aim of this study was prospectively to develop a pragmatic prognostic model to stratify patients according to risk of developing AKI after major gastrointestinal surgery. Methods: This prospective multicentre cohort study included consecutive adults undergoing elective or emergency gastrointestinal resection, liver resection or stoma reversal in 2-week blocks over a continuous 3-month period. The primary outcome was the rate of AKI within 7 days of surgery. Bootstrap stability was used to select clinically plausible risk factors into the model. Internal model validation was carried out by bootstrap validation. Results: A total of 4544 patients were included across 173 centres in the UK and Ireland. The overall rate of AKI was 14路2 per cent (646 of 4544) and the 30-day mortality rate was 1路8 per cent (84 of 4544). Stage 1 AKI was significantly associated with 30-day mortality (unadjusted odds ratio 7路61, 95 per cent c.i. 4路49 to 12路90; P < 0路001), with increasing odds of death with each AKI stage. Six variables were selected for inclusion in the prognostic model: age, sex, ASA grade, preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate, planned open surgery and preoperative use of either an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker. Internal validation demonstrated good model discrimination (c-statistic 0路65). Discussion: Following major gastrointestinal surgery, AKI occurred in one in seven patients. This preoperative prognostic model identified patients at high risk of postoperative AKI. Validation in an independent data set is required to ensure generalizability


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    Our laboratory has been working for the last several years with bacterial strains (designated as 1B-A, 1B-C, 1B-E, and 1D-3) isolated from South Dakota wheat foliage and residue which are able to antagonize Fusarium graminearum in laboratory plate assays and in field plot trials. Although we have known for many years that the bacterial strains are endospore formers that are able to grow aerobically, likely being members of the genus Bacillus, the exact identity of the strains has remained problematic. Systematics of the genus Bacillus have undergone great changes since modern methods for bacterial identification, such as analysis of membrane fatty acid methyl esters (FAME analysis) and analysis of small subunit 16S ribosomal RNA sequences have become available. Analysis of FAME patterns of the four strains done about six years ago suggested that bacterial strain 1D-3 was almost certainly Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, whereas the other three strains were not extremely similar to any bacteria in the FAME database, but were related to a degree to Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly B. subtilis variety niger). This year another laboratory did FAME analyses on the four strains. Results strongly indicated that strains 1B-A and 1D-3 were Bacillus lentimorbus, and that strains 1B-E and 1B-C were Bacillus subtilis. In addition, the first 50

    Bioassay guided isolation of antibacterial homoisoflavan from Dragon铆s blood resin (<i>Dammul-akhwain</i>)

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    494-497There is a great need of a simple, cost effective bioassay guided method for screening the antibacterial and antifungal properties of plants as novel drugs continue to be developed through research from these plants. In this short report, an antibacterial homoisoflavan using a simple method based on thin layer chromatography (TLC) from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f. resin has been isolated