107 research outputs found

    Incidence, dynamics, and prognostic value of acute kidney injury for death after cardiac surgery.

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    This study relates long-term mortality after cardiac surgery to different methods of measuring postoperative renal function, classified according to the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage (RIFLE) criteria. The dynamics of acute kidney injury during hospital stay were studied by comparing renal function preoperatively, at its poorest measurement, and at discharge

    Impact of national holidays and weekends on incidence of acute type A aortic dissection repair

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    Publisher Copyright: ¬© 2022, The Author(s).Previous studies have demonstrated that environmental and temporal factors may affect the incidence of acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). Here, we aimed to investigate the hypothesis that national holidays and weekends influence the incidence of surgery for ATAAD. For the period 1st of January 2005 until 31st of December 2019, we investigated a hypothesised effect of (country-specific) national holidays and weekends on the frequency of 2995 surgical repairs for ATAAD at 10 Nordic cities included in the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection (NORCAAD) collaboration. Compared to other days, the number of ATAAD repairs were 29% (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.54‚Äď0.94) lower on national holidays and 26% (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.68‚Äď0.82) lower on weekends. As day of week patterns of symptom duration were assessed and the primary analyses were adjusted for period of year, our findings suggest that the reduced surgical incidence on national holidays and weekends does not seem to correspond to seasonal effects or surgery being delayed and performed on regular working days.Peer reviewe

    Once after a full moon : acute type A aortic dissection and lunar phases

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    Publisher Copyright: © 2021 The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.OBJECTIVES: Acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is a rare but severe condition, routinely treated with emergent cardiac surgery. Many surgeons have the notion that patients with ATAAD tend to come in clusters, but no studies have examined these observations. This investigation was undertaken to study the potential association between the lunar cycle and the incidence of ATAAD. METHODS: We collected information on 2995 patients who underwent ATAAD surgery at centres from the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection collaboration. We cross-referenced the time of surgery with lunar phase using a case-crossover design with 2 different definitions of full moon (>99% illumination and the 7-day full moon period). RESULTS: The period when the moon was illuminated the most (99% definition) did not show any significant increase in incidence for ATAAD surgery. However, when the full moon period was compared with all other moon phases, it yielded a relative risk of 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.17, P = 0.057] and, compared to waxing moon, only the relative risk was 1.11 (95% CI 1.01-1.23, P = 0.027). The peak incidence came 4-6 days after the moon was fully illuminated. CONCLUSIONS: This study found an overrepresentation of surgery for ATAAD during the full moon phase. The explanation for this is not known, but we speculate that sleep deprivation during full moon leads to a temporary increase in blood pressure, which in turn could trigger rupture of the aortic wall. While this finding is interesting, it needs to be corroborated and the clinical implications are debateable.Peer reviewe

    Cardiorespiratory effects of venous lipid micro embolization in an experimental model of mediastinal shed blood reinfusion

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Retransfusion of the patient's own blood during surgery is used to reduce the need for allogenic blood transfusion. It has however been found that this blood contains lipid particles, which form emboli in different organs if the blood is retransfused on the arterial side. In this study, we tested whether retransfusion of blood containing lipid micro-particles on the venous side in a porcine model will give hemodynamic effects.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Seven adult pigs were used. A shed blood surrogate containing 400 ml diluted blood and 5 ml radioactive triolein was produced to generate a lipid embolic load. The shed blood surrogate was rapidly (<2 minutes) retransfused from a transfusion bag to the right atrium under general anesthesia. The animals' arterial, pulmonary, right and left atrial pressure were monitored, together with cardiac output and deadspace. At the end of the experiment, an increase in cardiac output and pulmonary pressure was pharmacologically induced to try to flush out lipid particles from the lungs.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>A more than 30-fold increase in pulmonary vascular resistance was observed, with subsequent increase in pulmonary artery pressure, and decrease in cardiac output and arterial pressure. This response was transient, but was followed by a smaller, persistent increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Only a small portion of the infused triolein passed the lungs, and only a small fraction could be recirculated by increasing cardiac output and pulmonary pressure.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Infusion of blood containing lipid micro-emboli on the venous side leads to acute, severe hemodynamic responses that can be life threatening. Lipid particles will be trapped in the lungs, leading to persistent effects on the pulmonary vascular resistance.</p

    The complexity of kidney disease and diagnosing it ‚Äď cystatin C, selective glomerular hypofiltration syndromes and proteome regulation

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    Estimation of kidney function is often part of daily clinical practice, mostly done by using the endogenous glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-markers creatinine or cystatin C. A recommendation to use both markers in parallel in 2010 has resulted in new knowledge concerning the pathophysiology of kidney disorders by the identification of a new set of kidney disorders, selective glomerular hypofiltration syndromes. These syndromes, connected to strong increases in mortality and morbidity, are characterized by a selective reduction in the glomerular filtration of 5‚Äď30 kDa molecules, such as cystatin C, compared to the filtration of small molecules <1 kDa dominating the glomerular filtrate, for example water, urea and creatinine. At least two types of such disorders, shrunken or elongated pore syndrome, are possible according to the pore model for glomerular filtration. Selective glomerular hypofiltration syndromes are prevalent in investigated populations, and patients with these syndromes often display normal measured GFR or creatinine-based GFR-estimates. The syndromes are characterized by proteomic changes promoting the development of atherosclerosis, indicating antibodies and specific receptor-blocking substances as possible new treatment modalities. Presently, the KDIGO guidelines for diagnosing kidney disorders do not recommend cystatin C as a general marker of kidney function and will therefore not allow the identification of a considerable number of patients with selective glomerular hypofiltration syndromes. Furthermore, as cystatin C is uninfluenced by muscle mass, diet or variations in tubular secretion and cystatin C-based GFR-estimation equations do not require controversial race or sex terms, it is obvious that cystatin C should be a part of future KDIGO guidelines.publishedVersio

    Once after a full moon: acute type A aortic dissection and lunar phases

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    OBJECTIVESAcute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is a rare but severe condition, routinely treated with emergent cardiac surgery. Many surgeons have the notion that patients with ATAAD tend to come in clusters, but no studies have examined these observations. This investigation was undertaken to study the potential association between the lunar cycle and the incidence of ATAAD.METHODS We collected information on 2995 patients who underwent ATAAD surgery at centres from the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection collaboration. We cross-referenced the time of surgery with lunar phase using a case-crossover design with 2 different definitions of full moon (>99% illumination and the 7-day full moon period).RESULTS The period when the moon was illuminated the most (99% definition) did not show any significant increase in incidence for ATAAD surgery. However, when the full moon period was compared with all other moon phases, it yielded a relative risk of 1.08 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.17, P = 0.057] and, compared to waxing moon, only the relative risk was 1.11 (95% CI 1.01-1.23, P = 0.027). The peak incidence came 4-6 days after the moon was fully illuminated.CONCLUSIONSThis study found an overrepresentation of surgery for ATAAD during the full moon phase. The explanation for this is not known, but we speculate that sleep deprivation during full moon leads to a temporary increase in blood pressure, which in turn could trigger rupture of the aortic wall. While this finding is interesting, it needs to be corroborated and the clinical implications are debateable.</p

    Invited commentary.

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    S100B and Cardiac Surgery

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    The brain-derived protein S100B is a 21 Kda dimerand have been used as a serum marker for brain damage of different etiology. The feasability of protein S100B as serum marker for brain damage after cardiac surgery was studied in this thesis. One unexpected finding was made, which changed the basis for interpration of S100B levels. Shed blood collected during surgery with cardiotomy suction contained high levels of S100B. In parallell, shed blood collected after surgery from drainage tubed also contained high levels of S100B. Retransfusion of this blood by means of cardiotomy suction or autotransfusion increased serum levels of S100B, making interpretation of serum samples drawn after retransfusion difficult to interpret, since the measured levels of S100B partly depended on extracerebral contamination. Th in vivo half-life for S100B was determined 25 minutes, and was not found to depend on glomerular filtration rate. As a consequence, any infusion of extracerebral S100B will be eliminated within 2-3 hours. A model for early S100B release was constructed, which corrected for extracerebral S100B and estimated release after surgery. With this model, a weak association was found between neuropsychological decline and increased release the first 4 hours after surgery. The nature of this association makes it difficult to use S100B in clinical practice for evaluating cognitive function in patients after surgery. In patients who suffered a brain infarction, absolute S100B levels 48 hours after surgery were found to correlate with size of the infarcted brain tissue. In these patients, S100B levels also predictedsurvival. In this group, patients with S100B above 0,5 microgram/L had shorter survival compared to those below that level. Increased S100B 48 hours after surgery was also associated with risk-factors for adverse neurological outcome
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